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Hypertension and nephrology

DECEMBER 19, 2020

[Hypertension aspects of Hungary’s Comprehensive Health Screening Program (MÁESZ) – The first 10 years]

BARNA István, KÉKES Ede, DAIKI Tennó, DANKOVICS Gergely

[Screening tests are known in GP practice, but it is also important for the population living away from the test sites to have access to screenings and to know the information that can be obtained. Hungary’s Comprehensive Health Screening Program 2010-2020 is a unique initiative in Hungary and in the world. It is the largest health protection program in Hungary, operating in a humanitarian form, which provides the population with free-of-charge screening with the most modern tools, keeping in mind the importance of prevention. The program is performed by the cooperation of 76 professional organizations, the national program for the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular diseases coordinated by the Association of Hungarian Medical Companies and Associations (MOTESZ) on the basis of European Union directives, and by consensual cooperation. In this publication, we present some hypertension-related data performed among 2010-2019.]

Lege Artis Medicinae

DECEMBER 21, 2020

[Risk of nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs. Focus on aceclofenac]

FARSANG Csaba

[Nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are among the most frequently used pharmaceuticals. Nevertheless, a number of studies emphasized that NSAIDs were damaging not only the gastrointestinal (GI), but also the cardiovascular (CV) system, could increase the blood pressure, the frequency of coronary events (angina, myocardial infarction) and stroke incidence, as well as they might deterio­rate renal functions. The National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) did not find evidence that administering NSAIDs could increase the risk of developing COVID-19 or worsened the condition of COVID-19 patients. However, unwanted effects of specific drugs differ substantially in their occurrence and seriousness as well. It seemed to be for a long time that the NSAIDs provoked higher GI-risk was closely related to the COX1/COX2 selectivity, like the cardiovascular (CV) risk to the COX2/COX1 selectivity, however, the recent data did not prove it clearly. Based on the available literature while pondering the gastrointestinal and cardiovascular adverse events, among all NSAIDs the aceclofenac profile seemed to be the most favourable.]

Hypertension and nephrology

JUNE 24, 2020

[Not all young, athletic university students have optimal blood pressure. Results of the May 2019 Measurement Month (MMM19)]

PATÓ Anna, NÉMETH Zoltán, JÁRAI Zoltán, KOLLER Ákos

[For about 100 years, it has been known that persistently high blood pressure (hypertension) is the leading cause of cardiovascular disease deaths, such as major risk factors for heart failure, myocardial infarction, stroke, kidney and eye disease. Unfortunately, one of the characteristics of hypertension is that it remains undetected for a long time until damage to one or more organs has already occurred. Therefore, it is very important that systemic blood pressure is monitored from time to time, especially above 45 years of age. The prevalence of hypertension is more than 35% in the Hungarian population. Recent data have pointed out that hypertension may occur at a younger age, although at a lower frequency. Our studies were conducted in the context of the May 2019 Measurement Month (MMM19), an international campaign that draws attention to hypertension and the lack of systematic screening at population level. We hypothesized that hypertension may occur in young, apparently healthy university students. The studies were conducted among students of the University of Physical Education (n = 33; 25 males, 8 females). The mean age was 24.3 years (20–34 years). To measure blood pressure, an automatic blood pressure monitor (Omron MIT5) was used, placed on individuals’ upper arms, as specified in the guidelines, in a relaxed, sitting position. The measurements were repeated three times at one-minute intervals and the average of the three measurements was statistically analyzed. Blood pressure values (mean ± SEM, averaged over 3 measurements) in the student population were systolic 121.9 ± 14.4 mmHg, diastolic 75.1 ± 9.1 mmHg, mean 90.7 ± 10.9 mmHg, and heart rate: 46.8 ± 5.3 mmHg. Although mean blood pressure was within the normal range, higher values were also found in some individuals. Systolic blood pressure fell by 33% due to elevated normal blood pressure, respectively of Grade 1 hypertension. These data confirmed our hypothesis that hypertension may occur at a young age, despite the fact that members of the study population exercise regularly, which is an important preventive factor in the development of cardiovascular disease. These results underscore the importance of regular blood pressure measurement in adolescents, which may reduce the global spread of hypertension and prevent the development of a number of cardiovascular diseases, including stroke, heart attack, renal failure and mental decline.]

Clinical Neuroscience

MARCH 30, 2016

[The importance of anticoagulant therapy in patients with artial fibrillation in stroke prevention – summary of international data and novel therapeutic modalities]

MIROLOVICS Ágnes, PAPP Csaba, ZSUGA Judit, BERECZKI Dániel

[The most common cardiogenic cause of ischaemic stroke is atrial fibrillation which increases the probability of stroke five-fold and doubles case fatality. Based on international data the incidence of atrial fibrillation is approx. 2% however this rapidly increases with age. The necessity of using oral anticoagulants in the prevention of non-valvular atrial fibrillation related stroke is decided based on estimated stroke risk. The CHADS2 and the more predictive CHA2DS2-VASc scales are used for this purpose while the bleeding risk of patients treated with anticoagulant may be estimated by the HAS-BLED scoring scale. For decades oral anticoagulation meant using vitamin-K antagonists. Based on international data we can see that rate of anticoagulation is unacceptably low, furthermore most of the anticoagulated patients aren’t within the therapeutic range of INR (INR: 2-3). A lot of disadvantages of vitamin-K antagonists are known (e.g. food-drug interaction, need for regular coagulation monitoring, increased risk of bleeding), therefore compounds with new therapeutic target have been developed. The novel oral anticoagulants (NOAC) can be divided in two major subgroups: direct thrombin inhibitors (dabigatran etexilate) and Xa-factor inhibitors (rivaroxaban, apixaban, edoxaban). These products are administered in fix doses, they less frequently interact with other medications or food, and regular coagulation monitoring is not needed when using these drugs. Moreover several studies have shown that they are at least as effective in the prevention of ischaemic stroke than the vitamin-K antagonists, with no more haemorrhagic complications.]

Hypertension and nephrology

APRIL 24, 2020

[Cardiovascular risk assessment in chronic kidney disease, significance of left ventricular myocardial mass index]

SÁGI Balázs, KÉSŐI István, VAS Tibor, CSIKY Botond, NAGY Judit, KOVÁCS Tibor

[Introduction: Earlier studies have shown that cardiovascular (CV) mortality and morbidity in chronic kidney disease (CKD) often exceed their average population, and left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) is an independent risk factor for CV disease. However, in CKD, the relationship between LVH, arterial stiffness (AS) and renal function has not yet been fully elucidated. Little data is available on their prognostic role. Aims of our study a) cross-sectional examination of the relationship between left ventricular mass index (LVMI), arterial vascular stiffness, and renal function, b) in our follow-up study, clarification of the LVMI, the prognostic role of AS in patients with CKD, IgA nephropathy (IgAN). Methods: In our cross-sectional study, 79 IgAN patients were examined in our clinic. The myocardial mass index (LVMI) was determined using an estimation formula after echocardiographic measurements. Arterial stiffness was measured using a photoplethizmography technique (PulseTrace) and characterized by the stiffness index (SI). The MDRD formula was used to estimate renal function (GFR) (eGFR, ml/min/1.73 m2). In the prognostic study the primary combined endpoint was total mortality, the most important CV events (stroke, myocardial infarction or cardiovascular interventions such as revascularization) and end stage renal disease. Secondary endpoints were CV and renal endpoints separately. Results: Of the 79 patients included in our cross-sectional study, 50 were men, with an average age of 46 ± 11 years. The mean value of LVMI was 106.66 ± 22.98 g/m2. Patients were divided into groups of 115 g/m2 for males considered to be abnormal and 95 g/m2 for women. LVMI is closely correlated with SI and inversely with eGFR (corr. coeff: 0.358; p <0.05 or -0.526; p <0.001). In case of LVH, SI was significantly higher in both sexes (p = 0.005 in males, p = 0.04 in females). In case of higher LVMI, renal function was significantly lower (p = 0.002 in males, p = 0.01 in females). Metabolic syndrome occurred in several cases in both sexes with LVH, but the difference was only significant in male patients (males 6 vs. 10, p = 0.008; females 2 vs. 4, p = 0.29). In our follow-up study, the presence of LVH in men significantly reduced survival in both primary and secondary endpoints, whereas in women there was no significant difference. Conclusion: In IgAN decreasing of renal function is closely related to left ventricular hypertrophy and vascular stiffness, as well as a close relationship was found between LVMI and AS. Reduced renal function is associated with an increase in LVMI and an increase in AS, which may result in a worse prognosis for both CV and renal outcomes. The underlying role of all these can be assumed to be a common vascular and myocardial pathological remodeling.]

Lege Artis Medicinae

MARCH 10, 2020

[Primary care strategy of antihypertensive treatment of very elderly and frail patients]

TORZSA Péter, KALABAY László, CSATLÓS Dalma, HARGITTAY Csenge, MÁRKUS Bernadett, MOHOS András, SZIGETI Mátyás, FERENCI Tamás, MARJOLEIN Verschoor, ROZSNYAI Zsofia, JACOBIJN Gussekloo, ROSALINDE K. E. Poortvliet, SVEN Streit

[BACKGROUND - When treating very el­der­ly and frail hypertensive patients, there have to be taken in account the general health condition and frailty of patients, the present cardiovascular diseases (CVD) and values of the systolic blood pressure (SBP). Goals - In a clinical study performed in 29 countries, we aimed to analyse differences in practical antihypertensive therapy of family doctors among patients older than 80 years; further we sought to answer how much was influenced their therapeutic choice by frailty of the old age. The other goal of our study was to compare Hungarian versus international outcomes. Methodology - As part of an online survey, family practitioners had to decide about necessity of starting antihypertensive treatment among very elderly patients according to different patterns of frailty, SBP and CVD. The ratio of specific cases with positive treatment decision of family practitioners was compared in all 29 countries. We used a logistic mixed model analysis to multivariately model the role of frailty. Results - 2543 family practitioners participated in the cross-national study; 52% were female; 51% practised in urban environment. In 61% of practices, there was the ratio higher than 10% of very elderly patients. Hungary participated with 247 family practitioners in the study; 52.3% were female; 63.1% practised in urban environment. In 48.8% of practices the ratio of very elderly patients was higher than 10%. In 24 out of the 29 countries (83%), frailty was associated with GPs’ negative decision about starting treatment even after adjustment for SBP, CVD, and GP characteristics (odds ratio [OR 0.53]), 95% CI: 0.48-0.59; ORs per country 0.11-1.78). The lowest treatment ratio was in the Netherlands (34.2%; 95% CI: 32.0-36.5%) and the highest one in Ukraine (88.3%; 95% CI: 85.3-90.9%). In Hungary’s treatment ratio ranged 50-59%. This country ranked on the 27th place since Hungarian family practitioners chose rather to start antihypertensive treatment despite the frailty of the patient (OR=1.16; 95% CI: 0.85-1.59). Hungarian family practitioners started pharmacotherapy of elderly patients more frequently if they were males (OR= 1.45; 95% CI: 0.81-2.61), were working in their practice for less than 5 years (OR=2.41; 94% CI: 0.51-11.38), and if they had many patients aged over 80 years in their practice (OR=2.18; 95% CI: 0.70-6.80), however these differences were sta­­tistically not significant. Among Hun­ga­rian family practitioners starting therapy was significantly influen­ced by cardiovascular disease (OR=3.71; 95% CI: 2.64-5.23) and a SBP over 160 mmHg (OR=190.39; 95% CI: 106.83-339.28). Conclusions - In our study, there was significant difference between countries in starting antihypertensive treatment for very elderly patients. However, Hungary was among the countries where family practitioners preferred to treat their frail patients. The patients’ frailty did not have any impact on starting the therapy; rather cardiovascular disease and a SBP over 160 mmHg decided. It is an important message of the study that there is continuous need to educate family practitioners and trainees about the treatment of frail, elderly hypertensive patients.]

Journal of Nursing Theory and Practice

AUGUST 30, 2019

[Meta-analysis about the Incontinence-associated dermatitis prevention ]

KÓSZÓ Lilla, NAGY Erika

[Background: The maintenance of tissue integrity is an essential part of qualitative nursing. There is a wide scale of products serving the prevention of Incontinence-associated Dermatitis (IAD). However, there is little evidence nurses know about them, making their choice of strategy difficult. Aim: To produce an evidence based publication about the preventive products of IAD, helping nurses in their choice of strategy. Method: In our meta analysis we examined the content of the Medline and Scopus database with special focus on English and Hungarian publications from the last ten years. From the 17459 articles relevant in this topic we analyzed and included 9 studies serving our criteria. Records: We found several methods of prevention; Washing without water, special absorbent pants, protocols and a study about the ’perineal pouch’. The studies were compared from the aspect of IAD prevalence, severity and cost effects. The 3in1 products and protokolls are should be used is the hungarian nursing practice.]

Hypertension and nephrology

OCTOBER 23, 2019

[GLP-1 receptor agonists in the treatment of type 2 diabetes]

WINKLER Gábor

[The glucagon-like peptide (GLP)-1 receptor agonists and somewhat later, the sodium-glucose cotransporter (SGLT) -2 inhibitors have brought new perspectives in the antihyperglycemic treatment of type 2 diabetes. The article overviews clinicopharmacologic characteristics of the GLP-1 receptor agonist group, their glycemic and non-glycemic effects, results of the cardiovascular endpoint studies as well as their place in the recent therapeutic guidelines. It is proven, that both glycemic and weight reducing effect is greater of the long-acting (non-prandial) coumpounds as compared to that of the short acting (prandial) derivates, further, that in studies with cardiovascular endpoints they reduced the relative risk of the composite endpoint of non-fatal myocardial infarct, non-fatal stroke and cardiovascular death. Due to the favolurable glycemic and non-glycemic properties their use is advised already in the early course of type 2 diabetes, as combination of the metformin therapy.]

Hypertension and nephrology

OCTOBER 23, 2019

[Blood pressure management for stroke prevention and in the acute stroke. The new guideline of European Society of Hypertension (ESH, 2018), European Society of Cardiology and Hungarian Society of Hypertension (HSH, 2018)]

JENEI Zoltán

[Hypertension is the leading modifiable risk factor for stroke. Its prevalence amongst stroke patient is about 60-70% and the benefit of blood pressure (BP) lowering therapy on stroke risk reduction is well established. However the optimal BP targets for preventing stroke and reducing stroke consequences have been controversial. The new European (ESC/ESH) and Hungarian (HSH) hypertension guideline published in 2018 highlighted the primary and secondary prevention of stroke and the BP management in the acute stroke care as well. According results from ACCORD, SPRINT, HOPE-3, and other metaanalysis the systolic blood pressure (SBP) lowering < 120 mmHg has not favourable effect, thus in hypertensive patients < 65 years the SBP should be lowered to a BP range of 120-129 mmHg. In older patients ≥ 65 years the SBP should be targeted to a BP range of 130-139 mmHg (IA). In patients with acute intracerebral haemorrhage careful acute BP lowering with iv. therapy, to <180 mmHg should be considered only in case of SBP ≥ 220 mmHg (IIaB). In patients with acute ischaemic stroke who are eligible for iv. thrombolysis, BP should be carefully lowered and maintained to < 180/105 mmHg for at least the first 24 h after thrombolysis (IIaB). If the patient is not eli gible for lysis and BP ≤ 220/110 mmHg, routine BP lowering drug therapy is not recommended inside 48-72 h (IA). In patients with markedly elevated BP > 220/110 mmHg who do not receive fibrinolysis, drug therapy may be considered, based on clinical judgement, to reduce BP by 15% during the first 24 h after the stroke onset (IIbC). After 72 h of acute stroke in case of hypertensive patients < 65 years the SBP should be lowered to a BP range of 120-129 mmHg (IIaB). In older patients ≥ 65 years the SBP should be targeted to a BP range of 130-139 mmHg (IA). If BP < 140/90 mmHg after stroke, the BP lowering should be considered (IIbA). It is recommended to initiate an antihypertensive treatment with combination, preferably single pill combination of renin-angiotensin system blockers plus a calcium channel blocker and/or a thiazide like diuretics (IA). Lowering SBP < 120 mmHg is not recommended due to advers events regardless of age and type of stroke either in primary or secondary stroke prevention.]

Lege Artis Medicinae

MARCH 20, 2019

[Five nine year results of „Comprehensive Health Screening of Hungary 2010-2020-2030”]

BARNA István, DAIKI Tenno, KÉKES Ede, DANKOVICS Gergely

[2010 a new, complex screening program started in Hungary, named Nationwide Comprehensive Health Protection Screening Program in Hungary 2010-2020-2030. The screening was installed on a specially furnished lorry, which is able and will be able to get anywhere from big cities to the smallest villages. The Program as part of the “Heart and Vascular National Program” works with the support of 74 professional-scientific societies and companies. The screening program took place in a specially furnished lorry. The lorry has an easy access to the disabled, operation was performed with the quality control and permission of ÁNTSZ. Near the lorry there were activities for the preservation of health and prevention of illnesses. Within the framework of the Program in the largest mobile diagnostics center in Hungary 37 comprehensive surveys in free form. This enormous special screening station allows 5,100 tests to be performed at each of the 200 screening stations nationwide. The screening program for over 20 years provides 15 million trials on 3,000 scenes and 1 million adult visitors in free humanitarian. The European National Health Program and the National Program for the Prevention and Treatment of Car­dio­vascular Diseases co-ordinated by the Asso­ciation of Hungarian Medical Asso­ciations (MOTESZ) are implemented by con­sensual cooperation. Based on the results, it was re-confirmed that Hungarian population belonged to the high risk group in several aspects. Authors also outlined solution plans for general risk reduction and disease prevention. ]