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Hungarian Radiology

SEPTEMBER 20, 2008

[Forces exerted on the plaques during in vitro measurements by various carotid stent delivery systems and embolic protection devices]

SZIKRA Péter, VÖRÖS Erika, SZTRIHA László, SZÓLICS Alex, PALKÓ András

[PURPOSE - During the endovascular treatment of internal carotid artery stenosis, one of the most important aspects is reducing of embolic complications. Degree of embolization may be influenced by the force exerted by stent delivery systems and embolic protection devices. We assessed the force emersion produced by various devices on vessel walls and plaques. MATERIAL AND METHOD - Six different commercially available devices were investigated. The force load on vessel wall was measured in a carotid model with vessel angulations of 25, 50 and 75 degree, respectively. The IDTE 2000 CE marked measurement system was used. A transparent, flexible PVC tube was used as a model of the carotid bifurcation, which was 6 mm in width, 1.5 mm wall thickness and 12 mm length. 75-85% stenosis were created in it. The measured data were evaluated and different conclusions were drawn. RESULTS - Forces exerted on vessel walls varied widely among different stent delivery systems. The magnitude of force exertion caused by stent delivery systems significantly exceeded that caused by protecting devices. Protecting devices showed only 30% increase in vessel load at angulation of 75 degrees compared to those at 25-50 degrees. Above 50 degrees of vessel angulation the forces exerted by stent delivery systems considerably increases. CONCLUSIONS - Our results showed that selection of the most proper stent can contribute to decrease in the load of vessel wall. Protecting devices exert significantly lower forces than stent delivery systems, therefore, it seems to be a better choice to advance a protecting device before introducing a stent delivery system. If the vessel angulation exceeds 50 degrees, endarterectomy should be considered, because the vessel wall load will increase radically in that case.]

Lege Artis Medicinae

JULY 14, 2007

[RECOGNITION AND MANAGEMENT OF ACUTE HEART FAILURE]

KARLÓCAI Kristóf

[Acute heart failure may develop in previously healthy hearts. Nevertheless, structural abnormalities can facilitate its development and also, chronic heart failure can progress into acute stage. Considering the total cost of care in the patient's life, this is the most expensive heart disease. The clinical signs and physical abnormalities are usually of diagnostic power, however, instrumental investigations are necessary to recognize complications and to guide therapy. Patients should be monitored in well equipped coronary care units. Therapy consists of medications, coronary revascularization and use of mechanical assist devices.]

Ca&Bone

DECEMBER 28, 2009

[Modelling of burden of femoral neck fracture from purchaser’s point of view]

SEBESTYÉN Andor, PÉNTEK Márta, GULÁCSI László, NYÁRÁDY József

[OBJECTIVE - This study provides a model of the treatment cost of femoral neck fracture and financial burden of the annual fracture cases at 2009 financial level from health insurance point of view. METHOD - The costs of the treatment of femoral neck fractures are modelled according to the actually OEP reimbursed types of care including acute inpatient care, chronic inpatient care, outpatient care, pharmaceuticals and medical devices, home care (nursing), cost of travelling or transport and the disability to work. Cases healing following primary treatment (without complications) and cases with complications are examined separately. The costs of most common complications with large surgical operation are calculated. RESULTS - The cost of patients in active age-groups cured by primary treatment can vary in a range of 1.010.110- 1.479.034 HUF depending on cost level of individual care and utilization, while the cost of patients in retired agegroups (pensioners) can vary in a range 635.350- 1.104.274 HUF. The cost of patients with complication (primary treatment and complication) in active agegroups can reach. 1 858.438-3.133.096 HUF depending on cost level of individual care and utilization, while the cost of patients in retired age-groups (pensioners) can reach 1.108.918-2.383.576 HUF. According to our model calculations, the cost of primary treatment of femoral neck fractures and essential further treatment represents an annual burden of 4.373.857.668-6.247.717.438 HUF for the health insurance system. CONCLUSION - In order to reduce the incidence of hip fractures one should emphasize the importance of current and future interventions, which projects the possibility of reducing the financial burden at societal level. The analysis of financial burden could serve as a base for health-economics studies, by elaborating a cost-effective strategy supported by professional and political decision makers.]

Lege Artis Medicinae

DECEMBER 19, 2008

[PREDICTORS OF RESPONSE TO TREATMENT IN CHRONIC VIRAL HEPATITIS]

PÁR Alajos

[As the results of antiviral therapy for hepatitis B and C infections are still suboptimal, attention has been given to the strategies to maximize the effectiveness of currently available therapeutic modalities. In this approach, individualized management - based on predictive factors that influence response to treatment - is a key component. The paper summarizes how predictors can assist in optimizing therapy of patients with chronic viral hepatitis. In chronic hepatitis B, a favorable response to interferon or nucleoside/ nucleotide therapy can be expected in young, HBeAg-positive patients with alanine aminotransferase (ALT) values >2-5× upper limit of normal, histological activity >4-10, HBV DNA <105 copies/ml (<20,000 IU/ml), and infection with HBV genotype A or B. Virological response at 12 and 24 weeks (>1 log10 decrease in HBV DNA titer or a titer of <400 IU/ml) may assist in decisions about treatment continuation or switching to another therapeutic option. In chronic hepatitis C, before interferon/ribavirin treatment, non-modifiable predictors are age, sex, race, cirrhosis, HCV genotype and HCV RNA titer. HCV1 genotype is an important negative predictor. Modifiable factors are body mass index, insulin resistance, diabetes, depression and cytopenias, which can be corrected in order to improve the chance of therapeutic success. During treatment, rapid (week 4), early (week 12), or slow (week 24) virological response may determine the duration of treatment (24, 48, or 72 weeks), and predict the likelihood of sustained virological response. Most important positive predictor is rapid response at week 4, similarly complete early response (at week 12) is also of value concerning the duration of therapy and even in the aspect of re-treatment. Body weight-adapted ribavirin dosing and patient adherence are important factors of therapeutic success, as well.]

Lege Artis Medicinae

JULY 14, 2007

[NON-PHARMACOLOGICAL TREATMENT OF CHRONIC HEART FAILURE]

MERKELY Béla, RÓKA Attila

[Heart failure has a poor prognosis despite the advances in pharmacological treatment. The utilization of non-pharmacological treatment with appropriate indications significantly improves the quality of life and life expectancy of these patients. Cardiac resynchronization therapy with biventricular pacemaker has a clinically proven efficacy in the treatment of heart failure associated with intraventricular dyssynchrony. Implantable cardioverter- defibrillators decrease the mortality from sudden cardiac death. Heart transplantation is needed in cases refractory to therapy. There are several other non-pharmacological treatment approaches, including mechanical circulatory assist devices, total artificial heart and ultrafiltration, whose routine application is not recommended due to limited clinical experience, but the initial results are promising.]

Clinical Neuroscience

MARCH 24, 2010

[Movement analyzing devices for analyzing the actual state of patients with movement disorders]

JOBBÁGY Ákos, HARCOS Péter, FAZEKAS Gábor, VALÁLIK István

[Movement analysis gives valuable information on the actual state of patients. Based on it, the early diagnosis and objective assessment of the progress of several diseases can be helped. Our research work has been focused on developing clinically applicable movement analyzing devices.]

Hungarian Radiology

APRIL 20, 2003

[Metal objects in the MR]

VÁRALLYAY György

[During magnetic resonance imaging the patient is exposed to three different types of electromagnetic radiation: static magnetic field, gradient or time varying magnetic fields and radiofrequency electromagnetic fields. The potential risks associated with performing MRI in patients with ferromagnetic implants, materials, or devices are related to the possibility of movement or dislodgement, to the induction of electrical currents and to the heating. The majority of metallic implants are considered to be safe for MRI, but patients with cardiac pacemakers, ferromagnetic aneurysm clips, cochlear implants, implantable drug infusion pumps should not be examined by MRI.]

Hungarian Radiology

MARCH 22, 2008

[Use of covered stents in the endovascular treatment of extracranial stenosis of the internal carotid artery]

SZÓLICS Alex, VÖRÖS Erika, SZTRIHA László, SZIKRA Péter, SZÓLICS Miklós, PALKÓ András

[INTRODUCTION - Significant stenosis of the internal carotid artery is frequently treated with stent placement. With growing clinical experience and usage of finer instrumentation, the incidence of periprocedural complications have reduced in larger centers. Two-thirds of the complications are postprocedural, due to the embolisation through the stent structure. Covered stents seem to be a good option against such embolisation. Our study demonstrates the efficiency, safety and feasibility of covered stent grafts, and the long term outcome of patients who underwent endovascular treatment of extracranial internal carotid artery stenoses, caused by highly embologenic plaques. MATERIALS AND METHODS - Between 2002 and 2003, 30 patients (22 male, 8 female, aged 50-89yrs, mean: 66 yrs) with 30 internal carotid artery stenoses having ipsilateral symptoms and/or stenotic lesions caused by irregular or ulcerated soft plaques or restenosis were treated with self-expanding covered stents (Symbiot, Boston Scientific). Predilatation and protecting devices were not used. Postdilatation was applied in every patient. Mean followup was 60 months (range 57-66 months), by Doppler ultrasonography as well as clinical examination. RESULTS - The degree of stenosis was found to range from 70% to subtotal occlusion. The plaque surfaces were irregular or ulcerated in 70%. The stenotic lesions were up to 30 mm in length. The narrowing of the internal carotid artery never extended to the common carotid artery. The technical success rate of stenting was 100%. The stents could be positioned with an accuracy of 2-3 mm. Periprocedurally, there were no neurological complications or deaths. During follow-up no strokes or stroke-related deaths occurred. Restenosis was found in two patients (6,6%) who underwent successful balloon dilatation. CONCLUSION - Our experience indicates that the covered stent is an efficient periprocedural and postprocedural “protecting device” to prevent neurological complications due to embolizations caused by high-risk plaques in stenotic lesions of extracranial internal carotid artery.]

Clinical Neuroscience

JULY 20, 2011

[Treatment of wide necked intracranial aneursyms in staged procedure with stent implantation and coils]

MÓZES Péter, LÁZÁR István, SOLYMOSI László

[Since the introduction of electrolytically detachable coils the endovascular treatment of intracranial aneurysms is dynamically developing. The good results with this technique led to a progressive expansion of the indications. For the treatment of complex, wide-necked and fusiform aneurysms several new devices and techniques were developed. The introduction of a new device is possible after a feasibility study. In these studies the number of cases is low. Some risk factors or possible complications occur only after the introduction of a new device to the market.]

Clinical Neuroscience

FEBRUARY 20, 2003

[Spinal stabilizations in our department 1989-2002]

HÁVEL János, GÖBÖL László, GÖRÖMBEY Zoltán, KISS Tibor, LAJKÓ Albert, VALÁLIK István, VIOLA Árpád, JULOW Jenő

[With the aim to compare results to those found in the literature, authors present a retrospective overview of the spinal stabilisations carried out in the Neurosurgical Department at the St. John’s Hospital, Budapest, Hungary between 1989 and 2002. This 37 bed department provides neurosurgical services to the Buda region with its one million inhabitants. Out of 156 000 injuries in total in the past 13 years, the department has dealt with 9360 neurotraumatologic cases, 560 of them suffering from spinal injuries. In parallel, non-traumatic cases were also treated for tumour, infections, degenerative diseases and for the instability of the spine. The 224 stabilised cases were classified into three groups: cervical, thoracic, lumbar. The authors enumerate the type of operation in each level and they present the number of cases belonging to each type. Septic complications occured in 2.5% of cases. Screw breaking or slackening of the implanted devices was observed in 2% of the cases. The types of spinal operations applied provide satisfactory method for controlling the problems caused by the instability the spinal trauma, degenerative and tumourous cases. These results do not diverge from those found in the literature.]