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Clinical Neuroscience

APRIL 20, 2002

[Regulatory mechanisms in focal cerebral ischemia. Perspectives in neuroprotective treatment]

NAGY Zoltán, SIMON László, BORI Zoltán

[Permanent or temporary disruption of cerebral blood flow rapidly depletes brain regions of their limited energy reserves (glycogen, glucose, oxygen, ATP) leading to an energy crisis. Tissue damage occurs due to the energy crisis. The central part of the damage, the ischaemic “core” region is surrounded by zones of the shell-like penumbra. Necrotic, as well as apoptotic cell death could be identified in the penumbra. Going away from the ischaemic core different neurochemical processes are occuring by space and time.“Immediate early response” genes (c-fos, fos-B, c-Jun, krox 20, 24) are activated, heatshock proteins (hsp 70, 72, HSF, HSE, HIF), cytokines (TNF-α, IL-1β), inflammatory factors (COX), adhesion and glial factors (ICAM-1, ELAM-1, P-selectin), vasoactive factors (IL -6, -10, PAF), reactive oxigen radicals and connected factors (O2, OH, NO, NOS, SOD) are produced within minutes and hours. Cell deaths, necrosis and apoptosis due to the activation of calpains, caspases and nucleases occur in days. In parallel, growth factors and plasticity proteins (BDNF, NGF, TGF-β, VEGF, PDGF, GAP-43) are activated as a basis of functional rehabilitation.]

Clinical Neuroscience

JANUARY 20, 2005

[EXPERIMENTAL DEMYELINATION CAUSED BY PRIMARY OLIGODENDROCYTE DYSTROPHY Regional distribution of the lesions in the nervous system of mice brain]

KOMOLY Sámuel

[Background and purpose - Heterogeneity of multiple sclerosis lesions has been recently indicated: In addition to T-cell-mediated or T-cell plus antibody-mediated autoimmune mechanisms (patterns I-II) two other patterns (III-IV) were described. Patterns III-IV are characterized by primary oligodendrocyte dystrophy, reminiscent of virus- or toxin-induced demyelination rather than autoimmunity. It was described more than 30 years ago that dietary application of a copper-chelating agent called cuprizone results in primary oligodendrocyte degeneration which is followed by demyelination. The aim of the present study was to examine the regional distribution of cuprizone induced oligodendrocyte dystrophy and demyelination in the nervous system of mice. Material a methods - Demyelination was induced in male weanling Swis-Webster mice by feeding them on a diet containing 0.6% (W/W) cuprizone bis(cyclohexanone)-oxalyldihydrazone (G. F. Smith Chemical, Columbus OH) for 8 weeks. Animals were sacrificed after 3, 7, 14, 27, 35, 56 days of cuprizone administration. Samples were taken from corpus callosum, anterior commissure, optic nerve, cervical spinal cord and sciatic nerve. Samples were examined by immunohistochemistry, in situ hybridization for myelin proteins and myelin protein mRNA-s, respectively. Conventional neuropathological stainings and electron microscopy was also performed. Results - Oligodendrocyte degeneration and demyelination followed a particular standard pattern in the central nervous system. Profound myelin loss developed in the superior cerebellar peduncle, anterior comissure and corpus callosum, whereas the optic nerves, velum medullare anterior and spinal cord showed little or no demyelination. Sciatic nerves were unaffected. No infiltration by lymphocytes or blood-brain barrier damage was observed during cuprizone treatment. Conclusion - Cuprizone induced oligodendrocyte damage and demyelination follows a particular standard pattern in the central nervous system of mice. Cuprizone induced demyelination might be considered as a model for human demyelinating disorders with primary oligodendrocyte dystrophy and apoptosis.]

Clinical Neuroscience

MAY 20, 2007

[NOVEL CELL-BIOLOGICAL IDEAS DEDUCIBLE FROM MORPHOLOGICAL OBSERVATIONS ON “DARK” NEURONS REVISITED]

GALLYAS Ferenc

[The origin, nature and fate of ”dark“ (dramatically shrunken and hyperbasophilic) neurons are century-old problems in both human and experimental neuropathology. Until a few years ago, hardly any cell-biological conclusion had been drawn from their histological investigation. On the basis of light and electron microscopic findings in animal experiments performed during the past few years, my research team has put forward novel ideas concerning 1. the nature of ”dark“ neurons (malfunction of an energystoring gel-structure that is ubiquitously present in all intracellular spaces between the ultrastructural elements), 2. the mechanism of their formation (non-programmed initiation of a whole-cell phase-transition in this gel-structure), 3. their capability of recovery (programmed for some physiological purpose), 4. their death mode (neither necrotic nor apoptotic), and 5. their relationship with the apoptotic cell death (the gel structure in question is programmed for the morphological execution of ontogenetic apoptosis). Based on morphological observations, this paper revisits these ideas in order to bring them to the attention of researchers who are in a position to investigate their validity by means of experimental paradigms other than those used here.]