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Lege Artis Medicinae

FEBRUARY 20, 2021

[Interrelations of social phobia, trait anxiety, perfectionism and psychological protective factors in a young female population: Cluster analysis]

DOBOS Bianka, PIKÓ Bettina

[Deterioration of social functions and quality of life and lower level of satisfaction with life are often joining to axiety disorders. Considering the higher prevalence rates across anxiety disorders for women, the aim of this study was to examine the relationship of social phobia with trait anxiety, perfectionism, use of pharmaceuticals, self-efficacy and life satisfaction in a group of young female participants. Online, self-administered questionnaire was used as a method of data collection at different social network sites. The sample consisted of young women aged between 14–35 years (N = 435, M = 27.3 years; SD = 5.9). The questionnaire con­tained items of socio-demographic variables, use of pharmaceuticals as well as mental background variables (Social Pho­bia In­ventory, State-Trait Anxiety In­ven­tory, Mul­ti­dimensional Perfectionism Scale, Ge­neral Perceived Self-Efficacy Scale, Sa­tis­faction with Life Scale). Besides correlation analysis, cluster analysis was conducted. rait anxiety shows strong correlation with social phobia, perfectionism and use of pharmaceuticals. After examining all variables three clusters were emerging: 1) high level of trait anxiety with social phobia, moderate perfectionism, low levels of self-effcacy and satisfaction with life; 2) trait anxiety below the average without social phobia, high self-efficacy and satisfaction with life; 3) trait anxiety above the average with moderate phobia, high perfectionism with high self-efficacy and moderate life satisfaction. Results of our study show that social phobia strongly interrelates not only with trait anxiety as a stable part of personality but with self-estimated lower well-being and lack of mental protective factors. ]

Clinical Neuroscience

NOVEMBER 30, 2018

Evaluation of symptom severity, functional status and anxiety levels in patients with carpal tunnel syndrome with different electrophysiological stages

SEVINC Gürses Eftal, TEKESIN Aysel, TUNC Abdulkadir

Objective - The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between electrophysiological stage, symptom severity, functional status and anxiety levels in patients with idiopathic carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS). Materials and methods - This study included 130 patients in the 25-79 age group who were classified as clinically and electrophysiologically idiopathic carpal tunnel syndrome in our electromyography (EMG) laboratory. Visual Analog Scale (VAS) was used to assess pain during rest and activity. The Boston Carpal Tunnel Scale (BCTS) was used to evaluate symptom severity and functional status. Symptom Severity Scale (SSS) and Functional Capacity Scale (FCS) were assessed separately as a part of BCTS. Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI) was used for anxiety assessment. Results - A total of 130 patients (25 males and 105 females) were enrolled to this prospective study. The mean age of the patients was 46.95 ± 10.57 years. When the electrophysiological stage was increased, it was found that SSS score and FCS score were increased (p <0.001). No significant correlation was detected between electrophysiological stage and VAS or BAI score. There was a positive correlation between VAS scores and SSS, FCS and BAI scores (p <0.001). Symptom severity and functional status were correlated with anxiety scores (p <0.001). SSS and FCS values of stage III and above patients were significantly higher than Stage I and II CTS patients (p <0.01). Conclusion - In conclusion, our study showed a significant correlation between symptom severity, functional status and anxiety in CTS patients. This can be interpreted as the mental deterioration of individuals with more severe symptoms. On the other hand, additional psychiatric support options should be recommended in cases of moderate findings but anxious symptoms. Electrophysiological findings shouldn’t be sufficient to measure the effect of the disease on the person.

Clinical Neuroscience

MARCH 30, 2020

Evaluation of anxiety, depression and marital relationships in patients with migraine


Aim - The aim of this study was to evaluate the frequency and characteristics of attacks in patients with migraine, to determine the effects of anxiety or depressive symptoms, and to evaluate the marital relationships of patients with migraine. Method - Thirty patients who were admitted to the neurology outpatient clinic of our hospital between July 2018 and October 2018 and were diagnosed with migraine according to the 2013 International Headache Society (IHS) diagnostic criteria were included in this cross-sectional study. Age, sex, headache frequency and severity, depressive traits, marital satisfaction and anxiety status were examined. We used the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), Maudsley Marital Questionnaire (MMQ) and Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) for measuring relevant parameters. Results - The mean severity of migraine pain according to VAS scale was 6.93 ± 1.41 and the mean number of migraine attacks was 4.50 ± 4.24. The mean BDI score of the patients was 12.66 ± 8.98, the mean MMQ-M score was 19.80 ± 12.52, the mean MMQ-S score was 13.20 ± 9.53, the mean STAI-state score was 39.93 ± 10.87 and the mean STAI-trait score was 45.73 ± 8.96. No significant correlation was found between age, number of migraine attacks, migraine duration, migraine headache intensity, and BDI, STAI and MMQ scores (p>0.05). But there was a positive correlation between MMQ-S and scores obtained from the BDI and STAI-state scales (p<0.05). Conclusion - In this study more than half of the migraine patients had mild, moderate or severe depression. A positive correlation was found between sexual dissatisfaction and scale scores of depression and anxiety.

Lege Artis Medicinae

JANUARY 20, 2019

[Eight questions and answers about anxiety in the elderly in family practice ]

CSATLÓS Dalma, VAJDA Dóra, MOHOS András, GONDA Xénia

[Anxiety is one of the most common psychological disorders in the elderly. Physical illnesses contribute to its development, but the opposite is also true: anxiety adversely affects the prognosis of many somatic illnesses, thus significantly enhancing morbidity and mortality. Therefore, the recognition and adequate treatment of anxiety disorders in the elderly are especially important in family practice, too. With the increase of life expectancy, the problems and illnesses of the elderly receive more and more attention in medical practice and anxiety cannot be ignored either, because the early detection of its symptoms improves the quality of life and reduces the chance of bad prognosis. ]

Lege Artis Medicinae

AUGUST 30, 2018

[Depression, anxiety and suicidal behavior. Recognition and care]


[Depression and anxiety disorders are major problems both in psychiatric and in general practice because of their frequency and recurring character. Owing to their common complications (suicide, suicide attempts, secondary alcoholism / drug disease, increased cardiovascular and cerebrovascular morbidity and mortality, loss of work, social isolation, etc.) they are the cause of significant individual, family and social burdens. In our paper we review the clinically revealable suicide risk and protective factors that can be observed in depression and anxiety disorders as well as the main aspects of the recognition and care of suicidal patients. With available medicines and non-pharmacological therapies, the vast majority of depressive and anxiety patients can be successfully treated and in most cases we can prevent suicidal behavior associated with these diseases. Besides psychiatrists general practitioners as well play a significant role in preventing suicidal behavior and in the recognition of suicide risk. ]

Clinical Neuroscience

MARCH 30, 2021

[Psychometric properties of the Hungarian Adult Attachment Scale]

ŐRI Dorottya, KAPORNAI Krisztina, BAJI Ildikó, KISS Enikő

[The revised Adult Attachment Scale (AAS) developed by N. L. Collins is a widely used questionnaire to measure adult attachment. However, its psychometric properties have not been investigated in Hungary. We aimed to confirm the key psychometric properties of the Hungarian version of the AAS focusing on reliability indices on a population that consis­ted of depressed and non-depressed young adults. The AAS is a self-report questionnaire, in which two different dimensional evaluating systems are possible: the original (close, depend, and anxiety) and the alternative scoring system (anxiety, avoidance). Our study population consisted of young adults with a history of major depression (n = 264, median age = 25.7 years) and their never-depressed biological siblings (n = 244, median age = 24.0). The internal consistency of close, anxiety, and avoidance scales were satisfactory (Cronbach-α >0.7). The consistency of the depend scale was slightly lower than expected (Cronbach-α = 0.62). Test-retest reliability was good for all of the scales, it ranged from 0.73 to 0.78 after 14 months of follow-up period. The scale showed good discrimination as tested by the differences of close and anxiety attachment dimensions between the groups (p<0.01). More­over, we were able to differentiate the currently dep­res­sed subjects based on these attachment dimensions. Explo­ra­tory and confirmatory factor analyses were conducted, and a bifactor solution proved optimal model fit. The three dimensions of the AAS has not been confirmed. However, the close and anxiety scales of AAS were found to be adequate. Our results also indicate that attachment features correlate with major depressive episodes in adulthood.]

Clinical Neuroscience

NOVEMBER 30, 2019

The effect of psychiatric comorbidities and stress-coping strategies on perceived quality of life in migraine


Purpose – Migraine is one of the most disabling primary headache conditions. We aimed to detect hidden symptoms of anxiety and depression and to survey stress-coping mechanisms and related quality of life in a large migraine population without any known psychiatric comorbidity. Method – 123 migraine patients (MG) and 66 healthy subjects (HC) completed the Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II), the State and Trait Anxiety Inventory (S-STAI and T-STAI), the Stress and Coping Inventory (SCI) and the 36-Item Short Form Health Survey (SF-36). Results – MG patients reached significantly higher scores on the BDI-II and the T-STAI yielding previously undetected anxiety and depression symptoms. Significant differences were present on the SCI: higher stress scores and lower coping levels suggested impaired stress-coping strategies in migraine. MG patients achieved significantly lower scores on most of SF-36 subscales indicating lower perceived quality of life. Significant correlations were found between BDI-II, T-STAI, SCI scores and subscales of the SF-36. Conclusion – Unrecognized symptoms of anxiety and depression, as well as less effective stress-coping strategies might be related to the lower perceived quality of life in migraine. The screening of these symptoms might lead to more focused and efficient therapeutic strategies. Addressing stress management techniques could improve quality of life on the long-term.

Clinical Neuroscience

JANUARY 30, 2019

Evaluation of body image perception in multiple sclerosis patients without neurological deficit

SENGUL S Hakan, SENGUL Yildizhan, TAK Zeynel Abidin Ali, KOCAK Müge, TUNC Abdulkadir

Objective - There is a lack of research on the association between body image perception (BIP) and multiple sclerosis (MS). The aim of this study was to evaluate BIP in MS patients and its correlation with depression, anxiety, duration of the disease, and sociodemographic characteristics of the patients. Methods - Fifty patients with MS who applied to our outpatient clinic were examined. Forty-five healthy control were recruited for the study. All patients were diagnosed with MS according to 2010 revisions of McDonald criteria. Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) was performed by the same neurologist for all patients. The participants were asked to complete a sociodemographic form, Body Cathexis Scale (BCS), Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), and Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI). Results - The mean BCS score was 86.54 ± 32.24 in MS patients and 155.00 ± 20.90 in the healthy subjects (p<0.001). While MS patients had significantly higher anxiety levels, depression scores were similar in both groups. The mean BAI score was 18.50 ± 14.03 for MS patients and 10.06 ± 7.96 in the control group (p=0.001). The BDI score of the patients was 13.77 ± 11.61 and 11.91 ± 8.65 for the controls (p=0.34). Early age of the disease onset, increased number of attacks, increased depressive symptoms, and higher anxiety levels were significantly correlated with higher BCS scores. Age and being single/ divorced/ widowed were also correlated with BCS scores. Conclusions - It is important to preserve the mental well-being of patients. Even in apparently healthy patients, the body perception may be severely impaired.

Clinical Neuroscience

NOVEMBER 20, 2015

[Attachment as a predictor of risk for eating disorders on a representative hungarian adult sample]

SZALAI Dömötör Tamás, CZEGLÉDI Edit

[Background and purpose – Many studies confirm the relationship between attachment disturbances and (the severity of) eating disorders, however among them only one Hungarian study can be found. The exact predisposing traits of attachment and the strength of relationship is still uncleared. Our aim was to explore these aspects. Methods – Study was based on a cross-sectional nationally representative survey, called „Hungarostudy 2013” (N=2000, 46.9% males, mean age 46.9 years, SD=18.24 years). Measures: Sociodemographic and self-reported anthropometric data (weight and height), short Hungarian version of Relationship Scale Questionnaire, SCOFF questionnaire and short Hungarian version of Beck Depression Inventory. Results – The frequency of risk for eating disorders (anorexia or bulimia nervosa) was 3.9% (N=76) among the respondents (N=1860). Attachment anxiety was significantly higher in the risk for eating disorders group (t(1888)=-3.939, p<0.001), and significantly predicted the risk for eating disorders after adjusting for the potential background variables (OR=1.09, p=0.040). Detachment was not a significant predictor of risk for eating disorders (OR=0.98, p=0.515). Younger age (OR=0.97, p<0.001), higher level of depression (OR=1.09, p<0.001) and higher body mass index (OR=1.08, p<0.001) were also significant cross-sectional predictors of risk for eating disorders. The explained variance of the model was 10.7%. Conclusion – The study supported, that higher attachment anxiety is associated with the increased risk of eating disorders, with a possible therapeutic relevance. Assessment of attachment’s further aspects and creating multivariable models are required for more thorough understanding and optimising of intervention points.]

Clinical Neuroscience

SEPTEMBER 30, 2019

Modern health worries in patients with affective disorders. A pilot study


Background - Modern health worries (MHWs) are asso­ciated with various indicators of negative affect, conspiracy theories, and paranormal beliefs in healthy individuals. Purpose - The current pilot study aimed to assess MHWs and indicators of negative affect in patients with affective disorders (N = 66), as well as the possible associations between MHWs and paranoid and schizophrenic tendencies. Results - Compared to somatic patients, psychiatric patients showed higher levels of MHWs, somatosensory amplification, health anxiety, and somatic symptoms. Medium level associations between MHWs and paranoid (r = 0.35, p < 0.01) and schizophrenic (r = 0.37, p < 0.01) tendencies were also revealed. Somatosensory amplification (β = 0.452, p < 0.001) and paranoia (β = 0.281, p < 0.01) significantly contributed to MHWs in multiple linear regression analysis (R2 = 0.323, p < 0.001). Discussion - High (i.e. pathological) levels of negative affect can impact a number of related characteristics. Non-pathological paranoid tendencies might contribute to MHWs. The identification of paranoid tendencies seems to be relevant for the treatment of psychiatric patients exhibiting MHWs. Conclusion - Patients with affective disorders are characterized by higher levels of modern health worries, health anxiety, and somatosensory amplification. Modern health worries are associated with paranoid tendencies.