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Hypertension and nephrology

FEBRUARY 20, 2019

[Sexual problems in CKD – a narrative review]

TÖRÖK Marietta, JÖRGEN Hegbrant, GIOVANNI Strippoli

[Sexual dysfunction is highly prevalent in patients with CKD, especially those receiving dialysis. Given the high prevalence of sexual problems in CKD patients, there has been growing interest in finding effective treatments for sexual dysfunction. PDE5i and zinc have been found promising interventions for treating sexual dysfunction in men with CKD in a systematic review of RCTs, but the evidence supporting their routine use in CKD patients is limited. In the Collaborative Depression and Sexual Dysfunction (CDS) Study, over a cohort of 1611 men in hemodialysis, 83% reported erectile dysfunction and 47% reported severe erectile dysfunction, with depression strongly correlated to this problem. Similarly, sexual dysfunction was highly prevalent in women undergoing hemodialysis. Of the 659 respondents, 555 (84%) reported sexual dysfunction and more than half of sexually active women reported sexual dysfunction, associated with age, depressive symptoms, menopause, low serum albumin, and diuretic therapy.]

Lege Artis Medicinae

MAY 20, 2019

[Perinatal faulty hormonal imprinting: early impact, late consequences]

CSABA György

[The description and basic study of hormonal imprinting were the first in the series of research, which led to the recognition of the role of perinatal chemical effects in the late (adult age) manifestation of some diseases and inclination to diseases. Today it is clear, that certain pathological states, as obesity or diabetes, hypo- or hyperactivity (autoimmunity and allergy) of immune system can be deduced to perinatal (hormonal or metabolic) imprinting. The perinatal hormonal (chemical) imprinting takes place at the first encounter between the developing hormone receptor and the target hormone which sets the binding capacity of the receptor for life. In the critical periods of ontogeny (in addition to the perinatal imprinting) it can be developed at weaning, in adolescence and in continuously dividing and differentiating cells during the whole life. It is provoked by considerable quantitative differences of the physiological hormone or the presence of strange target-hormone-like molecules. The faulty hormonal imprinting leads to the adult-age diseases at any time of life and is inherited epigenetically to the progeny generations. Faulty hormonal imprinting always could be present in earlier times however, at present, because of the erroneous multiplication of endocrine disruptors in the environment, nutrition and medicine, its importance is continuously growing. The effects of faulty hormonal imprinting seem to be dangerous however, it can be imagined in the far future also a positive effect by the transformation of the human endocrine system at an evolutionary route. In the metabolic or immunological imprinting as well, as in the DOHaD (Developmental Origins of Health and Disease) the foremost recognized hormonal (chemical) imprinting is materialized.]

Lege Artis Medicinae

OCTOBER 20, 2019

[Experiences with the Hungarian version of the Sexual Risk Behavior Beliefs and Self-efficacy Scales ]


[INTRODUCTION - One of the most em­phasized areas of school health education is sexual safety. For risk reduction, adolescent’s beliefs and self-efficacy about sexual safety are decisive; however, no Hungarian measurement tool for this construction was available before. The aims of the present study were to adapt the Sexual Risk Behavior Beliefs and Self-efficacy Scales (SRBBS) to Hungarian, to explore the gender differences, and to assess predictors of condom use among high school students. METHOD - 9th and 10th class high school students in a north-Hungarian city were involved in our cross-sectional study (N = 649; 52.5% boys; mean age: 16.7 years; SD = 1.01 years). Measures: SRBBS questionnaire, sexual behavior issues. RESULTS - The psychometric analysis of SRBBS has yielded encouraging results. The theoretical factor structure is largely supported, the internal consistency of the scales is adequate and its test-retest reliability is mostly acceptable. 35.5% of the participants had sexual intercourse during their lifetime and 65.8% had used condoms at the last occasion. The boys (OR = 2.17, p = 0.021) and those who had more positive attitude towards condom use (OR = 1.24, p = 0.002) were significantly more likely to use a condom during the last act than girls, and subjects with less favorable attitude towards condom use. CONCLUSIONS - SRBBS questionnaire should be introduced into domestic research to measure the effectiveness of health check-ups and school health education programs. ]

Lege Artis Medicinae

DECEMBER 10, 2019

[Risk assessment for child sexual abuse in the American legal practice]

KÓRÁSZ Krisztián

[The paper gives introspection into the child sexual abuse risk assessment practice in the USA by reviewing the literature. According to the definition of the World Health Organization, sexual assault is considered to be any act involving a child in a sexual activity if he or she can not be considered as prepared for the child's age or development. The author also makes an attempt to present some issues and pos­sible solutions regarding the current practice. ]

Hypertension and nephrology

APRIL 24, 2020

[Possibilities and limitations. Dietary difficulties of chronic renal failure in childhood]

REUSZ György, SZABÓ Adrienn

[In chronic kidney disease (CKD), the role of the kidney in assuring homeostasis is gradually deteriorating. Besides fluid, electrolyte and hormonal disturbances, detoxification and control of blood pressure is insufficient without external help. In children, in addition to achieving equilibrium it is also essential to ensure optimal physical and cognitive/psychological development. Adequate calorie intake is a major determinant of growth during infancy. Among the therapeutic options it is essential to ensure a proper diet. In addition to reflecting the special needs of renal failure in its composition, it must be palatable for the child. Children with kidney disease should have a normal energy diet. Protein intake should not be reduced from the baseline recommendation, but lower phosphorus and high bioavailability should be preferred. A low sodium and potassium diet is recommended for a significant proportion of patients and is based on dietary advice. Further, diet planning may be problematic if the child has special dietary requirements and is in need of nasogastric tube feeding. Because diet planning is a complex task, it is difficult to achieve optimal protein supply and mineral restriction along with high energy intake. In such cases, enteral nutrition with special formulas/ drinks developed for pediatric nutrition may provide a solution.]

Clinical Oncology

AUGUST 28, 2020

[The hormonal therapy of breast cancer]


[Breast cancer will be diagnosed in 12% of women in well-developed countries over the course of their lifetimes. This review focus on current approaches and strategies of systemic endocrine therapy of breast cancer. Breast cancer can be divided into three main subgroups based on the presence and absence of molecular markers (ER, PR, HER2 receptors). For patients without metastases the therapeutic goals are preventing the locoregional and distant recurrence. The length of adjuvant hormonal treatment is an important question in the everyday oncological practice. For patients with metastatic breast cancer the goal of the therapy is prolonging life, keep quality of life and palliating cancer symptoms. Patients with hormone receptor positive (HR+) tumours receive endocrine therapy, in monotherapy or in combination. As the result of new therapeutic approaches and of international drug development, HR+ breast cancer patients have more and more therapeutic options in case of early breast cancer as well as in metastatic settings.]

Lege Artis Medicinae

JULY 01, 2020

[Minority students in Hungarian medical training]

SZÉL Zsuzsanna

[General health of minority people is usually worse than that of their majority peers and they often expe rience discrimination in the healthcare system. According to international literature, physicians belonging to any minority group are more likely to care for other mi nority people, therefore they may play a key role in reducing healthcare inequities. Anonymous, online questionnaire was distributed to medical students of the four Hungarian universities with medical schools (response rate was 8.86%). In this paper, we analyze our collected data about perceived discrimination with descriptive statistical methods. Results of confirmative statistical analyses (statistical tests) were considered exploratory in nature. 29.6% of respondents self-identified as a member of any minority. 63.0% of minority students and 53.8% of women indicated that they realized discriminated or were harassed in the last 12 months, meanwhile, 37.8% of non-minority students and 31.9% of males have experienced discrimination. Dis­cri­mi­na­tion related to ethnic origin, sexual orientation and disability are regarded as the most widespread forms of discrimination according to our respondents. Students are most likely to say that there is no age related discrimination on the grounds of age – both being under 30 years old (12.0%) and being over 55 (8.6%). Being the member of any minority group seems to have no effect on student’s/ one’s opinion how widespread the forms of dis crimination are. Minority students are more comfortable to work with a member of another minority. However male students feel more uncomfortable to work with a member of sexual or gender minorities compared to female counterparts. Mi­no­rity students tend to be more critical to the universities’ efforts to enhance diversity. Minority students and females may play a key role in reducing discrimination in medical training and in the healthcare system and in providing high-quality care for individuals who belong to any minority. Although there are more females than males in medical training they still report higher occurrence of perceived discrimination. However, it is important to emphasize the low response rate in our study, which does not allow us to draw any general conclusions.]

Clinical Oncology

FEBRUARY 20, 2019

[Molecular subtypes and the evolution of treatment decisions in metastatic colorectal cancer]

RODRIGO Dienstmann, RAMON Salazar, JOSEP Tabernero

[Colorectal cancer (CRC) has clinically-relevant molecular heterogeneity at multiple levels: genomics, epigenomics, transcriptomics and microenvironment features. Genomic events acquired during carcinogenesis remain drivers of cancer progression in the metastatic setting. For example, KRAS and NRAS mutations defi ne a population refractory to EGFR monoclonal antibodies, BRAFV600E mutations associate with poor outcome under standard therapies and response to targeted inhibitors in combinations, while HER2 amplifi cations confer unique sensitivity to double HER2 blockade. Multiple rare gene alterations driving resistance to EGFR monoclonal antibodies have been described with signifi cant overlap in primary and acquired mechanisms, in line with a clonal selection process. In this context, sequential analysis of circulating tumor DNA has the potential to guide drug development in a treatment refractory setting. Rare kinase fusion events and complex alterations in genes involved in DNA damage repair have been described, with emerging evidence for targetability. On the other hand, transcriptomic subtypes and pathway activation signatures have also shown prognostic and potential predictive value in metastatic CRC. These markers refl ect stromal and immune microenvironment interactions with cancer cells. For example, the microsatellite instable (MSI) or POLE ultramutant CRC population is particularly sensitive to immune checkpoint inhibitors, while tumors with a mesenchymal phenotype are characterized by activation of immunosuppressive molecules that mandate stratifi ed development of novel immunotherapy combinations. In this manuscript we review the expanding landscape of targetable oncogenic alterations and signatures in metastatic CRC and discuss the clinical implementation of novel molecular diagnostic tests.]

Clinical Oncology

AUGUST 30, 2019

[Role of calcium metabolism in malignant diseases]


[Calcium plays a key role in a wide range of biologic functions. It is involved in skeletal mineralization, muscle functions, nerve transmission, and hormonal secretion and modulate various cellular functions too. Lines of research, on possible association of calcium metabolism regulation with tumorigenesis have been extensively studied in the recent decades. Implying disruptions and/or alterations of known regulatory and molecular pathways can lead to severe, sometimes life-threatening complications. The shift in physiological regulation and pathological factors also affect bone metastases and hypercalcaemia in cancer patients. For this reason, it is important to know about the changes in calcium metabolism and its treatment options in cancerous diseases.]

Clinical Oncology

FEBRUARY 28, 2020

[Non-surgical treatment of ovarian cancer]

PIKÓ Béla, LACZÓ Ibolya,, MARIK László

[The primary surgery with an optimal cytoreduction is an essential step during the treatment of the epithelial ovarian cancer because it determines the effectiveness of other therapeutic options as well. Immediately after the surgery a cytostatic infusion typically 40-42.5 degrees Celsius is pumped directly to the abdomen. During the systemic therapy the main point is the 6 months progression free survival because beyond this time the disease could be considered as platinum sensitive, inside this time as platinum refracter or resistant disease. The cytostatic treatment improved during the years from the alkylating agents through the platinum derivates to the administration of paclitaxel with several combinations of them and with more and more signifi cant results and less side effects. The most signifi cant targeted agents are the angiogenesis inhibitors (mainly the bevacizumab) and the PARP-inhibitors which prevents DNA repairs. In order to a PARP-inhibitor could be administered a platinum sensitivity is required while BRCA mutation not. Recently there are promising clinical researches with immunotherapy as well. The main benefi t of the hormonal therapy is the tolerability. Besides the signifi cant improvement in the systemic agents the role of radiotherapy is more and more decreasing, however the treatment of the whole peritoneal surface – mainly with the modern radiation techniques – could be an alternative solution for the chemotherapy. The palliative irradiation which relieve the symptoms could extend the drug-free period and the combination of radiation and chemotherapy could provide further possibilities.]