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Lege Artis Medicinae

SEPTEMBER 20, 2018

[Depression in medical practice - the possibilities of diagnosis and treatment]

OSVÁTH Péter

[Nowadays, there is an increasing incidence of depressive mood disorders, so we have more and more depressed patients in everyday clinical practice. Unfortunately, in many cases, this is not recognized and thus the treatment of depressed patients is not adequately addressed. Untreated depression not only increases the burden of the patient and his environment, but leads to serious and dangerous psychic and somatic complications. However, with modern and complex psychopharmacological, psychotherapeutic and sociotherapeutic methods, depressive mood disorders can be effectively treated. In this paper I review the etiologic background, the characteristics of depressive mood disorders and the most important steps of making diagnosis, as well as the state of the art therapeutic options. Rapid recognition and effective treatment of depressive symptoms has important therapeutic and preventive significance, so today, besides psychiatrists, there is an increasing role for general practitioners and other specialists (internists, neurologists, etc.).]

Lege Artis Medicinae

SEPTEMBER 20, 2018

[Multidisciplinarity and pulmonary hypertension in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis]

BOHÁCS Anikó, KARLÓCAI Kristóf, KERPEL-FRONIUS Anna

[Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a subgroup of the fibrotising idiopathic interstitial pneumonias occuring primarily in older adults. It is characterised by progressive decline of lung function and is associated with high mortality. IPF is frequently associated with pulmonary hypertension (PH). PH has unfavourable impact on the prognosis of IPF. PH should be suspected in IPF patients presenting with dyspnoe, desaturation on exertion and disproportionately low diffusion capacity. Transthoracic echocardiography is used to screen for PH in IPF patients. Although right heart catheterization is the gold standard procedure for the diagnosis of PH, this is not regularly performed on IPF patients. Chest high resolution computer tomography (HRCT) is essential for the diagnosis of IPF. IPF is typically characterised by the presence of usual interstitial pneumonia (UIP) pattern on HRCT. Multidisciplinary discussion bet­ween experienced pulmonologists, radiologists, and pathologists is key in the early and accurate diagnosis of IPF. An important role of the interstitial lung disease-multidisciplinary team (ILD-MDT) is to determine whether other diagnostic examinations and surgical lung biopsy is needed, in an attempt to reduce unnecessary risk. ILD-MDT should propose the initiation of antifibrotic therapies that have the potential to reduce disease progression. All patients diagnosed with IPF, with no contraindications for lung transplantation, should be referred early to a transplant committee.]

Lege Artis Medicinae

AUGUST 30, 2018

[How to diagnose idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. Part 2]

HORVÁTH Ildikó, KERPEL-FRONIUS Anna, HARKÓ Tünde

[Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis is a severe irreversible lung disease with a progressive course. The disease onset is hard to discover due to the unspecific signs and symp­toms. It occurs mainly in elderly people. In the past decades its prevalence has increased continuously. Physical examination, restrictive pattern on lung function test with decreased diffusion capacity are characteristic features of the disease. Chest X-ray showing fibrotic pattern also points toward the diagnosis of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. Differential diagnosis is based on high resolution komputertomográfy. Diag­nosis of IPF is based on the appearance of usual interstitial pneumonia pattern together with the lack of external risk factors and autoimmune or other diseases also known to cause this pattern seen on chest imaging. If no firm diagnosis can be built lung biopsy is required. Multidis­ciplinary teams from clinician, radiologist and pathologist are set in predefined centres that could provide care with novel antifibrotic drugs. These can slow disease progression and are in the frontline in the treatment of the disease. Further research is required to understand the pathomechanism and foster the discovery of further treatment options. ]

Clinical Neuroscience

MAY 30, 2018

Retrospective comparison of efficacy of levetiracetam and lacosamide add-on treatments in patients with partial onset seizure

ACAR Türkan, ARAS Guzey Yesim

Objective - The study aims to retrospectively compare the efficacy of lacosamide (LCS) and levetiracetam (LEV) in add-on treatment in patients with partial-onset epilepsy. Material and method - Patients who have been followed-up for at least one year due to diagnosis of partial epilepsy between September 2014 and December 2017 and who had no seizure control, despite using at least two antiepileptic monotherapies, and therefore undergone LEV or LCS add-on treatment were retrospectively reviewed. Of the patients, total number of seizures and seizure control rates 6 months before and 3 and 6 months after the add-on treatment were compared. Results - There was no statistically significant difference between the 30 patients in the LEV group (12 females, 18 males, mean age 29.7±6.6) and 28 patients in the LCS group (12 females, 16 males, mean age 28.2±6.4) in terms of age, gender and the duration of illness. When the LEV and LCS groups were evaluated separately, the mean number of seizures within 3 and 6 months after the add- on treatment were significantly lower than the mean number of seizures in the last 6 months before the add-on treatment (p<0.005 and p<0.005 respectively). There was no statistically significant difference between the two groups when compared with each other in terms of the rate of decrease in number of seizures and seizure control before and after the add-on treatment (p=0.445 and p=0.238, respectively). Conclusion - LCS appears to be as effective as the currently well-established LEV in the treatment of partial onset seizures. No comparative study was found in the literature similar to this subject matter. There is a need for prospective studies for the comparison of the efficacies of these two drugs.

Clinical Neuroscience

MARCH 30, 2018

[Changes of cognitive functions in healthy aging]

JUHÁSZ Dóra, NÉMETH Dezsõ

[Introduction - Mental health has crucial role in our life. Cognitive changes or decline can lead to many difficulties in daily routine of older people (e.g. organization of daily activities), which can, consequently, influence their well-being. Therefore it is an important question, which cognitive abilities are affected by age-related decline. Methods - In our study we aimed to investigate the changes of cognitive abilities in healthy older adults between 61 and 85 years of age compared to the performance of younger adults. Digit span, counting span, listening span, letter fluency, semantic fluency and action fluency tests were used to assess cognitive abilities, namely working memory and executive functions. Results - The results showed that younger adults performed significantly better in all tests than older adults. Importantly, the performance of older adults was better on tests requiring less complex mental computations (e.g. digit span test) than on more complex tests where both storing and mani-pulating information was required (e.g., counting span test). We also showed that within the older age group, cognitive functions’ decline was linearly associated with increasing age. Conclusion - The present study used several, well-established neuropsychological tests to map the changes of working memory and executive functions in healthy older adults between 61 and 85 years of age compared to younger adults. Our findings can contribute to the development of prevention programs aimed at improving the quality of life of older adults and preventing age-related cognitive decline.]

Clinical Oncology

SEPTEMBER 10, 2017

[Treatment of the relapsed epithelial ovarian cancer ]

BOÉR Katalin

[Ovarian cancer remains the most lethal gynaecological cancer and most patients present with advanced FIGO stage disease. Despite optimal upfront surgery and the administration of front-line paclitaxel-carboplatin chemotherapy, approximately two-third of ovarian cancer patients will relapse in the fi rst 3 years. In the last years, the goal in the treatment of ovarian cancer has shifted to maintenance therapy, trying to extend the progression free intervals of the patients. Remarkable advances in the knowledge of molecular biology of relapses led to the introduction the combination of antiangiogenic agent bevacizumab and chemotherapy, which showed to be effective in all phases of the disease, in fi rst-line therapy, as maintenance therapy, and in platinum-sensitive and platinum-resistant recurrence as well. Very recently, a new maintenance therapy, olaparib monotherapy has been introduced into clinical practice to treat platinum-sensitive, relapsed, high-grade serous ovarian cancer. Despite progresses in this therapy, are still some areas of controversy on how to manage epithelial ovarian cancer relapses. The aim of this manuscript is to give an overview on the management of relapsed ovarian cancer in the context of new available therapeutic modalities.]

Lege Artis Medicinae

JANUARY 20, 2018

[Faces of dementia]

FULLAJTÁR Máté, HIDASI Zoltán

[Dementia is defined as a combination of symptoms or as a syndrome. In different types of dementia syndromes cognitive, behavioural and psychological symptoms can be distinguished according to clinical aspects. The prevalence of dementia increases continuously with age, causing significant challenges for the health care system of developed countries. Early diagnosis and early intervention by progression slowing therapy can be defined as goals in treating dementia. At the same time, the education and psy­chological support of the patients, their relatives and health care providers are also essential. A more accurate knowledge of the pathomechanisms behind the symptoms is ne­cessary in order to develop more effective therapies in the future. The authors review the most important types of mild cognitive impairment and dementia syndromes, their clinical and diagnostical criteria and therapeutic possibilities, focusing on early diagnosis and prevention.]

Lege Artis Medicinae

SEPTEMBER 20, 2017

[Dementia and pseudodementia - depression as a risk factor of dementia]

NÉMETH Attila

[Dementia and depression have the highest annual costs for brain disorders (mental and neurologic disorders) in Europe. The prevalence of these disorders is very high in the old age. The depression is common and an underrecognized part of the dementia syndrome because of similar symptomatology and the comorbidity. The correct differential diagnosis is important in the therapeutic approach. The pseudodementia of depression can be improved by antidepressants. The author reviewed the symptomatologic and neurobiological connection of these two disorders.]

Clinical Oncology

MAY 10, 2017

[Pneumonitis - severe adverse effect of therapy]

VÁRNAI Zsuzsanna

[The interstitial lung diseases (ILD) are a heterogeneous group of disorders that are classifi ed together because of similar clinical, radiographic or pathologic manifestation. The diffuse interstitial lung diseases are divided into those that are associated with known causes and that are idiopathic. The treatment choices and prognosis vary among the different causes and types of ILD, so the early and correct diagnosis is important. In oncology ILD could be a rather severe adverse effect of treatment with radiationor chemotherapy.]

Clinical Neuroscience

SEPTEMBER 30, 2017

[Childhood sporadic type of hemiplegic migraine with arteria cerebri media hypoperfusion]

NAGY Csaba, BAJZIK Gábor, SKOBRÁK Andrea, CSORBA Eszter, LAJTAI Anikó, BALOGH Gábor, NAGY Ferenc, VAJDA Zsolt

[Hemiplegic migraine is a rare subtype of migraine that is associated with reversible motor weakness in the aura phase. This is an uncommon form of migraine usually starting in childhood. The purpose of this case report is to highlight the differential diagnostic difficulty of the first attack. We describe a case, where the fluctuating unilateral motor weakness and aphasia suggested that the patient had ischaemic stroke. Nevertheless the brain MRI and MR angiography, the measured 5-hydroxyindole acetic acid (5-HIAA) concentration changes and the spontaneously improving clinical status proved the diagnosis of hemiplegic migraine. The MRI and MR angiography was very beneficial in establishing the correct diagnosis in this case. To distinguish between the familiar and sporadic type of hemiplegic migraine further genetic tests can be carried out.]