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Lege Artis Medicinae

JUNE 10, 2009

[Necessity of a shift in attitudes in the judgment and therapy of skin and soft-tissue infections]

SZALKA András

[Skin and soft-tissue infections are defined as infections of the epidermis, dermis, or subcutan tissue. They are among the most common human bacterial infections observed in clinical practice. It has also been shown that the incidence of skin and soft-tissue infections is increasing. This has been attributed to several factors, including increasing population age, surgical wounds related to more invasive surgery in the ageing population, obesity, malnutrition, diabetes, peripheral vascular disease and decreasing immunocompetence. There has been a major increase in the occurrence of Staphylococcus aureus infections, and communityacquired methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) infections in particular. Although many cases of skin and soft-tissue infections can be successfully treated using empirical antimicrobial therapy, changing resistance patterns of S. aureus isolates necessitate new treatment strategies.]

Lege Artis Medicinae

NOVEMBER 20, 2009

[Treatment of severe infections: principles of therapy and problems of resistance]

LUDWIG Endre

[The basic principles of the treatment of severe infections have recently been delineated : after having samples for microbiological tests, empiric therapy based on local resistance patterns should be introduced immediately, possibly within 1 hour in severe sepsis or in septic shock, the empiric therapy should be simplified according to the results of microbiological tests and/or improvement of the condition of patient , the antibiotics should be applied according to their pharmacodynamic properties, the duration of therapy should be shortened to the minimum time, in case of well responding non-complicated infection to 5-7 days., The most frequent problem pathogens in Hungary are the MRSA and ESBL-producing Gram-negatives. In severe infections with MRSA bacteremia, the therapy sholud be based on the vancomycin MIC of the pathogen. If MIC is below 1,5 mg/l, vancomycin is probably effective with a serum minimum concentration of 15 mg/l, while in case of less sensitive pathogens the administration of an alternative agent, such as linezolid, tigecyclin or daptomycin should be considered. In severe infections due to ESBL-producing pathogens, the carbapenems are the firts line antibiotics, while tigecyclin seems to be a promising alternative agent. The treatment of severe infections requires thorough care of the patient and skillnes in antimicrobial therapy in the period of multiresistant pathogens]