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Clinical Neuroscience

MARCH 30, 2014

[SELYE’S CONCEPT OF PLURICAUSAL DISEASES AND ITS IMPACT ON REGULATORY SCIENCE]

SOMOGYI Árpád

[Science assumed in recent decades an increasingly important role in the regulatory field. Regulatory science is now regarded as established specific brunch of science. A disturbing anomaly, the emergence of fraudulent data is of major concern both in the field of research and in the regulation. Hans Selye’s work on stress, on several forms of pluricausal diseases and on other experimental models came into the focus of interest on the occasion of the Selye Symposium - 2013 held in May 2013 at the Hungarian Academy of Sciences in Budapest.]

Clinical Neuroscience

MARCH 30, 2014

[STRESS IN THE CLASSIFICATION OF PITUITARY TUMORS. FOCUS ON AGGRESSIVE PITUITARY ADENOMAS]

KOVÁCS Kálmán, ROTONDO Fabio, HORVÁTH Éva, SYRO V Luis

[After a brief summary of the stress concept and the contribution of Dr. Hans Selye, this publication focuses on the classification of pituitary neoplasms and the difficulties to provide conclusive information on the prognosis of various pituitary tumor types. The term “aggressive pituitary tumors” was introduced. These tumors have a rapid cell proliferation rate. At present, the assessment of Ki-67 nuclear labeling index appears to be the simplest and most reliable method to evaluate tumor cell multiplication. Further studies on pituitary tumor biomarkers are needed.]

Clinical Neuroscience

MARCH 30, 2014

[CENTRAL NEUROENDOCRINE MECHANISMS OF GASTROPROTECTION]

GYIRES Klára

[Selye recognized the importance of activation of hypothalamic- pituitary-adrenal axis during stress and the connection between central nervous system and neuroendocrine regulation. This concept basically contributed to initiation of the studies, which revealed the importance of brain gut axis in regulation of gastric mucosal integrity. Several neuropeptides, such as thyreotrop releasing hormones, adrenomedullin, peptide YY, amylin, opioid peptides, nociceptin, nocisatin, substance P, ghrelin, leptin, orexin-A, angiotensin II were shown to induce gastroprotective effect injected centrally. Though the involvement of dorsal vagal complex and vagal nerves in conveying the central action to the periphery has been well documented, additional mechanisms have also been raised. The interaction between neuropeptides further component that may modify the gastric mucosal resistance to noxious stimulus.]

Clinical Neuroscience

MARCH 30, 2014

[HANS SELYE 70 YEARS LATER: STEROIDS, STRESS ULCERS & H. PYLORI]

SZABÓ Sándor

[Although Hans Selye is mostly known for his discovery & development of the stress concept, he also introduced the first physiologically sound, structure-activity classification of steroids that was also based on the chemical structure of steroids in 1943. He not only introduced the names of glucocorticoids & mineralocorticoids but discovered the anti- & pro-inflammatory properties, respectively, of these steroids in animal models. Furthermore, he not only described the first stress-induced gastric ulcers in rats (1936) & characterized the first human ‘stress ulcers’ during the air-raids in London during World War II (1943). Thus, Selye was a much more productive & creative scientist than it is generally considered.]

Clinical Neuroscience

MARCH 30, 2014

[EVEN VISITING SCIENTISTS COULD MAKE DISCOVERIES IN MONTREAL]

LÁZÁR György

[This publication summarizes the scientific adventure with Professor Selye, and focuses on the specific effect of rare metal salts on reticuloendothelial functions. Rare earth metal ions markedly affect the functions of cells involved in inflammatory and immunological phenomena. The Kupffer cell blockade induced by GdCl3 is a generally accepted method for investigation of the physiological and pathophysiological roles of Kupffer cells. Potential beneficial effects of macrophage blockade have been demonstrated in different shock states, liver injury and obstructive jaundice.]

Clinical Neuroscience

MARCH 30, 2014

[HANS SELYE AND THE STRESS RESPONSE: FROM “THE FIRST MEDIATOR” TO THE IDENTIFICATION OF THE HYPOTHALAMIC CORTICOTROPIN-RELEASING FACTOR]

TACHÉ Yvette

[Selye pioneered the stress concept that is ingrained in the vocabulary of daily life. This was originally build on experimental observations that divers noxious agents can trigger a similar triad of endocrine (adrenal enlargement), immune (involution of thymus) and gut (gastric erosion formation) responses as reported in a letter to Nature in 1936. Subsequently, he articulated the underlying mechanisms and hypothesized the existence of a “first mediator” in the hypothalamus able to orchestrate this bodily changes. However he took two generations to identify this mediator. The Nobel Laureate, Roger Guillemin, a former Selye’s PhD student, demonstrated in 1955 the existence of a hypothalamic factor that elicited adrenocorticotropic hormone release from the rat pituitary and named it corticotropin releasing factor (CRF). In 1981, Wylie Vale, a former Guillemin’s Ph Student, characterized CRF as 41 amino acid and cloned the CRF1 and CRF2 receptors. This paves the way to experimental studies establishing that the activation of the CRF signaling pathways in the brain plays a key role in mediating the stress-related endocrine, behavioral, autonomic and visceral responses. The unraveling of the biochemical coding of stress is rooted in Selye legacy continues to have increasing impact on the scientific community.]

Clinical Neuroscience

MARCH 30, 2014

[HANS SELYE: AN INSPIRING TEACHER]

GIULIO Gabbiani

[The souvenirs of Hans Selye as a teacher of graduate and post graduate students are presented and discussed. The main aim of his teaching was to orient the student toward importance and originality of findings.]

Clinical Neuroscience

MARCH 30, 2014

[THE SURPRISING DUAL ACTION OF GLUCOCORTICOIDS]

LUDMILA Filaretova, MAKARA Gábor

[Glucocorticoid hormones may have dual action on the stomach: physiological gastroprotective and pathological proulcerogenic one. In physiological conditions, even in acute stress situations, glucocorticoids have an adaptive effect on the stomach and, therefore, are gastroprotective. The findings that we review in this article suggest that glucocorticoids released during acute stress are naturally occurring protective factors that play an important role in maintenance of the gastric mucosal integrity.]