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Clinical Neuroscience

MARCH 30, 2016

[The therapeutic use of transcranial magnetic stimulation in major depression]

NÉMETH Viola Luca, CSIFCSÁK Gábor, KINCSES Zsigmond Tamás, JANKA Zoltán, MUST Anita

[The antidepressive effect of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) has been investigated for almost 20 years now. Several studies have been published aiming to identify the exact and reliable parameters leading to the desired therapeutic effect. However, the related literature shows great variability. The current overview aims to provide a comprehensive overview of factors associated with the therapeutic effect of rTMS in major depression. High frequency stimulation of the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) for 3-6 weeks leads to mood improvement comparable to the effect of antidepressive medications in 35-40% of patients. Pharmacotherapy resistant patients treated with rTMS reach remission for 3 months on average. Low frequency stimulation of the right DLPFC appears to be similarly effective, though much less investigated so far. In addition to the exact delineation of the stimulation area, treatment outcome is also related to stimulation intensity as well as the number of sessions and impulses. Considering the safety and tolerability aspects of rTMS, it might be a significant therapeutic support for therapy resistant patients. Above this, patients diagnosed with major depression might benefit from the additional positive influence of rTMS improving the effect of antidepressive medication. Based on converging research evidence, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) agency approved the use of rTMS as a treatment option for therapy resistant major depression in 2008. So far, in Hungary rTMS is primarily considered as a promising tool in research settings only. Hopefully, patients suffering from major depression will increasingly benefit from the positive therapeutic effect of this intervention.]

Clinical Neuroscience

NOVEMBER 20, 2015

[Attachment as a predictor of risk for eating disorders on a representative hungarian adult sample]

SZALAI Dömötör Tamás, CZEGLÉDI Edit

[Background and purpose – Many studies confirm the relationship between attachment disturbances and (the severity of) eating disorders, however among them only one Hungarian study can be found. The exact predisposing traits of attachment and the strength of relationship is still uncleared. Our aim was to explore these aspects. Methods – Study was based on a cross-sectional nationally representative survey, called „Hungarostudy 2013” (N=2000, 46.9% males, mean age 46.9 years, SD=18.24 years). Measures: Sociodemographic and self-reported anthropometric data (weight and height), short Hungarian version of Relationship Scale Questionnaire, SCOFF questionnaire and short Hungarian version of Beck Depression Inventory. Results – The frequency of risk for eating disorders (anorexia or bulimia nervosa) was 3.9% (N=76) among the respondents (N=1860). Attachment anxiety was significantly higher in the risk for eating disorders group (t(1888)=-3.939, p<0.001), and significantly predicted the risk for eating disorders after adjusting for the potential background variables (OR=1.09, p=0.040). Detachment was not a significant predictor of risk for eating disorders (OR=0.98, p=0.515). Younger age (OR=0.97, p<0.001), higher level of depression (OR=1.09, p<0.001) and higher body mass index (OR=1.08, p<0.001) were also significant cross-sectional predictors of risk for eating disorders. The explained variance of the model was 10.7%. Conclusion – The study supported, that higher attachment anxiety is associated with the increased risk of eating disorders, with a possible therapeutic relevance. Assessment of attachment’s further aspects and creating multivariable models are required for more thorough understanding and optimising of intervention points.]

Clinical Neuroscience

MARCH 30, 2016

[Individual evaluation of loreta abnormalities in idiopathic generalized epilepsy]

CLEMENS Béla, PUSKÁS Szilvia, BESENYEI Mónika, KONKÁDOR István, HOLLÓDY Katalin, FOGARASI András, BENSE Katalin, EMRI Miklós, OPPOSITS Gábor, KOVÁCS Noémi Zsuzsanna, FEKETE István

[Background – Contemporary neuroimaging methods disclosed structural and functional cerebral abnormalities in idiopathic generalized epilepsies (IGEs). However, individual electrical (EEG) abnormalities have not been evaluated yet in IGE patients. IGE patients were investigated in the drug-free condition and after 3-6 month of antiepileptic treatment. To estimate the reproducibility of qEEG variables a retrospective recruited cohort of IGE patients was investigated. 19- channel resting state EEG activity was recorded. For each patient a total of 2 minutes EEG activity was analyzed by LORETA (Low Resolution Electromagnetic Tomography). Raw LORETA values were Z-transformed and projected to a MRI template. Z-values outside within the [+] 1. In drug-free condition, 41-50% of IGE patients showed abnormal LORETA values. 2. Abnormal LORETA findings showed great inter-individual variability. 3. Most abnormal LORETA-findings were symmetrical. 4. Most maximum Z-values were localized to frontal or temporal cortex. 5. Succesfull treatment was mostly coupled with disappearence of LORETA-abnormality, persistent seizures were accompanied by persistent LORETA abnormality. 1. LORETA abnormalities detected in the untreated condition reflect seizure-generating property of the cortex in IGE patients. 2. Maximum LORETA-Z abnormalities were topographically congruent with structural abnormalities reported by other research groups. 3. LORETA might help to investigate drug effects at the whole-brain level.]

Clinical Neuroscience

MARCH 30, 2020

[Intracranial EEG monitoring methods]

TÓTH Márton, JANSZKY József

[Resective surgery is considered to be the best option towards achieving seizure-free state in drug-resistant epilepsy. Intracranial EEG (iEEG) is necessary if the seizure-onset zone is localized near to an eloquent cortical area, or if the results of presurgical examinations are discordant, or if an extratemporal epilepsy patient is MRI-negative. Nowadays, 3 kinds of electrodes are used: (1) foramen ovale (FO) electrodes; (2) subdural strip or grid electrodes (SDG); (3) deep electrodes (stereo-electroencephalographia, SEEG). The usage of FO electrode is limited to bitemporal cases. SDG and SEEG have a distinct philosophical approach, different advantages and disadvantages. SDG is appropriate for localizing seizure-onset zones on hemispherial or interhemispherial surfaces; it is preferable if the seizure-onset zone is near to an eloquent cortical area. SEEG is excellent in exploration of deeper cortical structures (depths of cortical sulci, amygdala, hippocampus), although a very precise planning is required because of the low spatial sampling. The chance for seizure-freedom is relatively high performing both methods (SDG: 55%, SEEG: 64%), beside a tolerable rate of complications.]

Clinical Neuroscience

MARCH 30, 2020

[New applications of conventional EEG analysis ]


[Neurophysiological research suggests that the so-called “standard” EEG analysis has been confronted with new diagnostic challenges. The findings mainly concern the occurrence, the neurophysiological and clinical significance of epileptiform EEG discharges in several neurological and psychiatric disorders. In addition to well-known interictal and ictal discharges, a growing number of recently recognized epileptiform phenomena have been described. The first reports suggested that they might be relevant for the comprehensive description of epileptic dysfunction and might contribute to diagnosis and treatment as well. However, considerable improvement of present-day “standard” EEG technique is necessary to give an appropriate answer to most challenges. Reliable registration and quantitative assessment of well-known epileptiform transients require extended electrode coverage of the head (high-density EEG) and long-term recordings including waking and sleep states to estimate frequency and dyna­mics of targeted activities. Computer-based automatic event detection is preferable to spare time and cost of the evaluation. The authors review recent progress concerning epidemiology, neurophysiology and clinical impact of well-known epileptiform transients and candidate epileptiform activities in neurological and psychiatric conditions. However, recent results need confirmation in large patient populations; therefore, research should not be restricted to a few central laboratories.]

Clinical Neuroscience

MARCH 30, 2020

Evaluation of anxiety, depression and marital relationships in patients with migraine


Aim - The aim of this study was to evaluate the frequency and characteristics of attacks in patients with migraine, to determine the effects of anxiety or depressive symptoms, and to evaluate the marital relationships of patients with migraine. Method - Thirty patients who were admitted to the neurology outpatient clinic of our hospital between July 2018 and October 2018 and were diagnosed with migraine according to the 2013 International Headache Society (IHS) diagnostic criteria were included in this cross-sectional study. Age, sex, headache frequency and severity, depressive traits, marital satisfaction and anxiety status were examined. We used the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), Maudsley Marital Questionnaire (MMQ) and Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) for measuring relevant parameters. Results - The mean severity of migraine pain according to VAS scale was 6.93 ± 1.41 and the mean number of migraine attacks was 4.50 ± 4.24. The mean BDI score of the patients was 12.66 ± 8.98, the mean MMQ-M score was 19.80 ± 12.52, the mean MMQ-S score was 13.20 ± 9.53, the mean STAI-state score was 39.93 ± 10.87 and the mean STAI-trait score was 45.73 ± 8.96. No significant correlation was found between age, number of migraine attacks, migraine duration, migraine headache intensity, and BDI, STAI and MMQ scores (p>0.05). But there was a positive correlation between MMQ-S and scores obtained from the BDI and STAI-state scales (p<0.05). Conclusion - In this study more than half of the migraine patients had mild, moderate or severe depression. A positive correlation was found between sexual dissatisfaction and scale scores of depression and anxiety.

Lege Artis Medicinae

MARCH 10, 2020

[Diagnosis and treatment of the overactive bladder]


[The Overactive Bladder Syndrome (OAB) is a symptomatic diagnosis featured mainly by urgency of urine discharging. This condition can be triggered by a number of etiological factors, most of which are idiopathic in origin. Regardless of gender and age, the prevalence is ca. 16% and has a serious impact on the quality of life of the patients. In­ves­tigations are mostly performed through usual baseline examinations; second-line invasive examinations are rarely required. The broad spectrum of treatment options ran­ges from lifestyle changes and elimina­tion of triggering factors, through be­ha­vio­ural therapy and medication to the mi­ni­mally invasive (botulinum toxin, neuro­mo­dulation, percutaneous stimulation of the tibial nerve) - and rarely - invasive thera­pies. ]

Lege Artis Medicinae

JANUARY 20, 2020

[History of Daytime Hospital of the Department of Psychiatry in the University of Debrecen ]


[In Hungary, there was a ward related psychotherapy already since the 1960s, yet without any national network to the 1980s. In Debrecen the spreading of the psychotherapeutic approach started in the psychiatric facilities since the 1990s. Daytime Hospital was founded first in the County Hospital and later on in the Department of Psychiatry of the University. The latter option was provided by separating the psychiatry from neurology. This study presents the development of the day care at the Psychiatric Department along the opportunities and shows the structure of the actually functioning system finally reports on our future plans respectively. Initially started the occupational therapy, gymnastics, community cooking and walking, which did not require any separate rooms. The 22-bed psychotherapeutic unit was established 2014 with its joined capacity for 11 persons in the Daytime Hospital. The County Hospital is engaged primarily in socio-therapy of psychotic psychiatry pa­tients, however the Psychiatric Department is rehabilitating mainly patients with affective spectrum disorders. Patients are treated in socio-therapy and psychotherapy small groups for a half or one year. Afterward they enter the outpatient program, may join the Patient Club or decide for therapeutic occupation aiming the best way of recovery. According to the feedback, there is a long-term change in the mental state of the patients leading to improvement in their quality of life, which we plan to prove by an efficacy research program. ]

Clinical Oncology

APRIL 10, 2019

[Current views on the male breast cancer]

BAKI Márta

[Breast cancer in men is a rare disease, and accounts for only 1% of all diagnosed breast cancers. Hungarian incidence by available data much higher. The greatest risk factor of male breast cancer the elevated estrogen concentration in the body. Genetic disorders, as a Klinefelter syndrome and estrogen exposures and other metabolic changes might cause the male breast cancer. Symptom duration is longer than female population and the male breast cancers diagnosed in older ages and advanced stages. Frequency of BRCA2 mutation is probably 10% among male patients. The most common type is invasive ductal carcinoma with estrogen and progesterone receptor positivity. Diagnostic, surgical, radiation procedures and chemotherapy probably same as female breast cancer. The guidelines recommend as in adjuvant and curative setting the tamoxifen and other selective estrogen receptor modulators treatment. By large nation based registry the survival rate is different from male and female breast cancers. New biomarkers, genetic changes are under investigation to understand munch better the male breast cancer.]

Hypertension and nephrology

DECEMBER 12, 2019

[Hypertension and brain function. Correlation of high blood pressure and demencia in aging. Hypertension in young-middle adults - demencia in elderly]


[The cerebral vascular damage caused by hypertension is manifested primarily in cognitive dysfunction, which is caused by hypoperfusion of brain tissue, ischemic, or bleeding stroke, or white matte injury. Hypertension may not only result in cerebral damage to the vascular background - dementia -, but may also contribute to the development and progression of classical gene-related Alzheimer’s disease. Blood pressure gradually increases in the elderly and in the very elderly, and the frequency of hypertension-mostly as isolated systolic hypertension - is 50% to 70%. High blood pressure predominately, or in full, means not only an increase in the circulatory resistance of the small children, but also, as part of the aging of the body, the rigidity (stiffness) of the arteries. At the same time, the incidence of dementia, along with age, rises sharply - up to 20% in those over 65 years of age, and over 40% in 80-90 years of age. The relationship between high blood pressure and dementia from the young age to the very old age may change as a function of current age. In the very old age of life, the varying influence of other pathological factors other than hypertension is becoming more and more important in the deterioration of both the vascular structure and the brain function. In this late stage of life, the very advanced rate of aging and nutritive blood flow often require higher perfusion pressure, and the not enough thought-out blood pressure reduction can be more damaging than a protective effect on brain condition or function. SPRINT MIND - the Intense Blood Pressure Reduction - hasn’t resolved the question, and we can legally assume that the 130-140 Hgmm SBP. Is the most favorable for dementia. The value of DBP 70 Hgmm is definitely unfavorable.]