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Clinical Oncology

DECEMBER 30, 2019

[Sequential therapy of metastatic renal cell carcinoma]

TORDAY László

[The incidence of renal carcinoma is on the rise in developed countries, with the tumor being among the 10 most common malignancies. However, the survival of patients with irresecable renal carcinoma has improved signifi cantly in recent years, mainly due to signifi cant advances in oncology treatment. The use of agents acting on the VEGF and mTOR signaling pathways is widespread and has become a standard clinical practice in fi rst and later line therapy. Recent clinical trials have provided many new drugs with new targets (cMET and AXL, FGFR, PD-1/PD-L1, CTLA-4) and combinations thereof, and have completely redrawn the treatment landscape of metastatic renal carcinoma and signifi cantly improved clinical results. This report reviews data on targeted drug therapy of renal cell carcinoma and discusses the therapeutic position of various drugs and combinations to our knowledge.]

Clinical Oncology

DECEMBER 10, 2016

[Side-effects of immunotherapy]

LANDHERR László

[The immune system has an important role in controlling and eradicating cancer cells. Antibody therapy against several negative immunologic regulators (checkpoints) has demonstrated promise in a variety of malignancies. The immune checkpoint blockade with antibodies against cytotoxic T lymphocyte- associated antigen 4 (CTLA-4) and the programmed cell death protein 1 pathway (PD-1/PD-L1) and its ligand have a unique and distinct pattern of adverse events. Immune-related adverse events are most commonly observed in the skin, gastrointestinal tract, liver and the endocrine system. Early recognition and treatment are believed to be important in mitigating severity of such adverse effects.]

Clinical Oncology

SEPTEMBER 10, 2014

[Pharmacological treatment of metastatic melanoma]

OLÁH Judit, GYULAI Rolland

[Malignant melanoma belongs to the group of relatively easily manageable tumors; if detected and removed early, it rarely metastasizes. Although the visible nature of the primary tumor provides opportunity for early diagnosis, there is a signifi cant portion of patients who receive proper management only with substantial delay. The fact that there are annually 300-400 patients with metastatic disease in Hungary, can be mostly attributed to public unawareness about melanoma, and consequent delay in seeking medical treatment. Metastatic melanoma remains - even today - an incurable disease. Molecular genetic research, however, resulted in revolutionary changes in melanoma management. Today, apart from the classic pathological prognostic factors, information regarding specifi c molecular modifi cations (such as in the expression of the BRAF, NRAS, c-KIT genes and proteins) are inevitable for the setting up of a personalized oncological treatment plan. By targeting members of the MAPK signal transmission pathway (using BRAF- and MEK-inhibitors), signifi cant improvement could be achieved in metastatic melanoma. Similarly, new drugs targeting specifi c immune checkpoint regulators (such as CTLA-4 and PD-1/PD-1L) provide previously unprecedented survival benefi t for melanoma patients. In this review the most recent developments in the fi eld of melanoma management are summarized.]

Clinical Oncology

DECEMBER 05, 2014

[Immuno(onco)therapy – road to the future]

DANK Magdolna, SZENTMÁRTONI Gyöngyvér, OROSZ Zsuzsanna, TÓTH Andrea, TŐKÉS Tímea

[Our immune system fi ghts effectively against infections, but the same activity exists against invading cancer cells, as well. However, malignant tumors are able to escape from these mechanisms; therefore tumor cells become unrecognizable for the immune system. Immuno-oncology is a novel and innovative discipline, focusing on a long-term purpose: to enhance the immune-response against malignancies. The main goal is to stimulate the immune system to properly recognize and destroy malignant tumor cells. This approach is comprehensive, includes the initiation of antitumor immune-response and enhancing its controlling mechanisms, moreover, provides active, anti-tumor effector cells. Recent results of anticancer research highlighted a new era of oncology, which is based on targeted, personalized medicine over cytotoxic therapies, and mainly focusing on the rapidly evolving discipline of immuno-oncology.]