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Lege Artis Medicinae

OCTOBER 21, 2020

[Atherosclerosis: an ancient process in a new interpretation]


[The progress of atherosclerosis starts in childhood and lasts until the body dies. Most cardiovascular diseases and deaths can be traced back to atherosclerotic vascular changes. The process is thousands of years old, but its complex pathophysiology becomes recognized and realised only nowadays. Based on the evidence available today, atherosclerosis is such a chronic inflammatory disease of large- and medium-sized arteries, which is characterized by lipoproteins and immune cells transformed through oxidative and other changes and subendothelial accumulation of extracellular matrix. Innate and adaptive immunity provide a complex regulating system of atherogenesis, which while directing specifically the pro-atherogenic inflammatory and atheroprotective anti-inflammatory processes intensify plaque progression or even stabilize them respectively. With our growing knowledge about the pathology of atherogenesis, we can further improve the identification of cardiovascular risk conditions and apply more personalized therapeutic strategies.]

Clinical Neuroscience

MAY 30, 2020


[Family planning in multiple sclerosis: conception, pregnancy, breastfeeding]

RÓZSA Csilla

[Family planning is an exceptionally important question in multiple sclerosis, as women of childbearing age are the ones most often affected. Although it is proven that pregnancy does not worsen the long-term prognosis of relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis, many patients are still doubtful about having children. This question is further complicated by the fact that patients – and often even doctors – are not sufficiently informed about how the ever-increasing number of available disease-modifying treatments affect pregnancies. Breastfeeding is an even less clear topic. Patients usually look to their neurologists first for answers concerning these matters. It falls to the neurologist to rationally evaluate the risks and benefits of contraception, pregnancy, assisted reproduction, childbirth, breastfeeding and disease modifying treatments, to inform patients about these, and then together come to a decision about the best possible therapeutic approach, taking the patients’ individual family plans into consideration. Here we present a review of relevant literature adhering to international guidelines on the topics of conception, pregnancy and breastfeeding, with a special focus on the applicability of approved disease modifying treatments during pregnancy and breastfeeding. The goal of this article is to provide clinicians involved in the care of MS patients with up-to-date information that they can utilize in their day-to-day clinical practice. ]

Clinical Oncology

APRIL 10, 2019

[Metals and cancer]

VETLÉNYI Enikő, RÁCZ Gergely

[We often tend to forget about our environment when looking for the origin of a disease. Inhaled air, drinking water and food, substances in contact with the skin all have an effect on the human body. Metals are indispensable parts of our everyday lives, their mining, processing and use cause a continuous exposure to them. Metal exert their effects on the body in various ways. Many of them are essential for maintaining homeostasis, but excessive or harmful metal intake can lead to health damage, including tumour formation through multiple attack points. Metals substitute each other during different transport processes and in the structure of proteins, they cause oxidative stress and bind to DNA, thereby damaging it. Applying them appropriately, the proapoptotic effect of the metal compounds is brought to the fore, thus becoming a therapeutic tool for tumours. Nowadays, platinum(II) compounds are widely used as chemotherapeutic agents and there are many ongoing studies to fi nd metal compounds with an ideal therapeutic and side-effect profi le. The aims of this article were to draw the attention to the dangers of metals in relation to cancer and to highlight their diverse application possibilities in current and future cancer therapy and diagnostics.]

Hypertension and nephrology

FEBRUARY 24, 2021

[Sudden death – ECG – hypertension]


[Sudden death (HH) is not only associated with coronary heart disease or heart failure, but is also present in hypertension, primarily associated with left ventricular hypertrophy, systolic pressure, and age. Co-morbidities of hypertension (diabetes, coronary heart disease, heart failure and renal failure) contribute greatly to its development. HH occurs due to ventricular fibrillation, or asystole. The auther demonstrates depolarization and repolarization pathologies leading to HH and detectable on the ECG and their characteristic ECG patterns. He also emphasizes the importance of resting heart rate and heart rate variability.]

Hypertension and nephrology

FEBRUARY 24, 2021

[Prevalence and treatment of hypertension in patients with newly diagnosed familial hypercholesterolemia]

NÁDRÓ Bíborka, DIÓSZEGI Ágnes, KOVÁCS Beáta, PARAGH György, PÁLL Dénes, HARANGI Mariann

[Familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) is an inherited defect of cholesterol metabolism characterized by high plasma total cholesterol (TC) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels and premature cardiovascular disease risk. Prevalence of hypertension in FH is not clarified, but its appearance is independent risk factor for the development of cardiovascular disease. Therefore, optimal treatment has a major priority in this high-risk population. We aimed to investigate the lipid parameters and evaluate the presence of hypertension and its treatment characteristics in 86 newly diagnosed, untreated heterozygous FH patients (27 males, 59 females, mean age 53.6±13.4 years). We diagnosed FH by using the Dutch Lipid Clinic Network criteria. The mean TC level was 8.49±1.7 mmol/l, the mean LDL-C level was 6.11±1.5 mmol/l, the mean high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) level was 1.62±0.5 mmol/l, while the median lipoprotein (a) level was 301 mg/l. We diagnosed 33 FH patients (38.4%) with hypertension. Beta blockers were used in 23, ACE-inhibitors in 13, ARBs in 12, calcium channel blockers in 9, and HCT in 11 cases. 11 patients was treated with monotherapy, for 10 patients double, for 11 patients triple, while for 1 patient quadruple combined antihypertensive therapy was administered. Based on our results, hypertension might be underdiagnosed in this specific patient population. Neither the types nor the combination patterns of blood pressure lowering agents are in line with current guidelines. Up to date screening and treatment of hypertension should be worth considering in this extremely high risk population with enhanced atherosclerosis.]

Hypertension and nephrology

FEBRUARY 24, 2021

[Prevention of polyuria during lithium treatment. Recent research and history]

[Renal toxicity of lithium is a highly important subject which may jeopardize the use of an agent needed by millions suffering from recurrent episodes of bipolar disorder. Lithium induced severe renal damage leading to end stage renal disease can be almost prevented today using lowered plasma lithium levels. But administration of medicines are necessary for the prevention of the lithium induced disturbance in renal concentrating operation and development of nephrogenic diabetes insipidus. Use of thiazides, non-steroid anti-inflammatory compounds (indomethacine) amiloride, high doses of desmopressin and their combinations are our present armamentarium. The present therapy for lithiuminduced nephrogenic diabetes insipidus in man is to counter anti-vasopressin action of lithium. The “future” treatment seems to be (on the basis of recent animal experiments) to enhance the sensitivity of the kidney to vasopressin action by administering pharmacologic blockade of the renal P2Y12 receptor by using clopidrogel or prasugrel.]

Hypertension and nephrology

FEBRUARY 24, 2021

[Risk estimates of advanced chronic kidney disease and predicting mortality in dialyzed patients]


[In mostly the second part of the last decade lots of epidemiological study have been released about the progression of the chronic kidney disease (CKD) and theirs connection with the risk of death. The fact that lots of nephrologist from all over the world (from Canada to New-Zealand) are pretty much interested in this topic is absolutely proved by national (REIN Study – French Registry) and international (KDIGO Controversies Conference, DOPPS 1-5, or the European AROII Study) researchers with these epidemiological questions in their focus. The risk estimation facts that are able to show the life expectancy of patients with CKD 3-5 (expected time to dialysis or mortality risk before renal replacement therapy – RRT) and the early or hopefully longer survival odds of the dialyzed ones could be very useful not only for the medical stuff but also for the patients. In case of the predialyzed patients the focus has to be on the Bansal score and also on the Kidney Failure Risk Equation (KFRE) scores (with 4 and 8 variable); on the other hand in dialyzed patients the REIN score that prognose a short-term survival and the Cohen model (both are easy calculated with webcalculators) are in the highlight of importance. There is not a big difference (2- 7%) in validated researches between the prognosed and the real survival dates. Despite of this prediction has to always be evaluated individually in favour of the best decision we can make for the patients and in order to choose the right treatment: conservative therapy, dialysis or transplantation.]

Lege Artis Medicinae

FEBRUARY 20, 2021

[Diagnosis and treatment of microvascular coronary heart disease. Specialities of conditions in Hungary]

IPOLY Szauder

[Invasive investigations show that in two-thirds of patients the myocardial ischaemia persists without obstructive coronary disease and any other heart conditions (INOCA). The underlying cause may be microvascular dysfunction (CMD) with consecutive microvascular coronary disease (MVD) and microvascular or epicardial vasospastic angina (MVA). The modern practice of clinical cardiology while using the developed non-invasive cardiac imaging permits exact measuring of the coronary flow with its characteristic indices. All of these improve the diagnosing of CMD-induced myocardial ischemia and provide opportunity to determine primary MVD cases. Since the recognition and treatment of MVD is significantly underrep­resented in the Hungarian medical care, the primary stable microvascular angina (MVA) is described in detail below with its modern invasive and non-invasive differential diagnosis and treatment, concerning especially its frequency provoked by high blood pressure and female coronary heart diseases. There are highlighted all recommended diagnostic procedures available under domestic conditions.]

Lege Artis Medicinae

FEBRUARY 20, 2021

[Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and recommendations for treatment]


[Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is prognosticated to become the 3rd most prevalent cause of early lethality. It’s main etiology is long-term smoking which induces chronic inflammation and obstruction of the airways as well as elastolysis of the pulmonary interstitium which lead to emphysema. Increased resistance of the intrathoracic airways and emphysema induce hyperinflation of the lung and chest which increases the work-load of the respi­ratory muscles. COPD patients are typically hypoxaemic and normocapnic. Finally, fatigue of the respiratory muscles cause the development of global respiratory failure (hypercapnia and severe hypoxaemia). Most effective intervention is smoking cessation. Maintanance treatment includes inhalational long-acting bronchodilators with or without inhalational corticosteroids. Acute exacerbation is treated with O2 supplementation, inhalational bronchodilators, systemic steroids and/or antiobiotics. Frequency and severity of acute exacerbations prognosticate shorter survival. In chronic respiratory failure long-term home O2 therapy can be provided.]