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Clinical Neuroscience

MARCH 30, 2012

[The comparative analysis of arterial wall thickness and arterial wall stiffness in smoking and non-smoking students]

LÉRÁNT Brigitta, CHRISTINA Straesser, OLÁH László, KARDOS László, CSIBA László

[Aim - Our aim was to detect the adverse effects of smoking on arterial wall thickness and arterial wall stiffness in young, healthy university students. Question - Does only a few years of smoking result in measurable vascular alterations in healthy young people? Methods - We measured the intima-media thickness (IMT) on both common carotids by means of carotid ultrasound, then we examined the stiffnessparameters of the blood vessels (pulse wave velocity, PWV; augmentation index, Aix) with the help of arteriograph. Subjects - We recruited 25 smoking and 25 non-smoking young volunteers aged 19-33 for our examinations. Exclusion citeria included any known diseases, abnormally high cholesterol levels, BMI value exceeding 30 kg/m2. Only regular smokers were allowed to participate in the smoking group (at least for six months, minimum five cigarettes a day). Results - In case of smokers morphological, hemodinamic and stiffnessparameters showed significantly higher values compared to non-smokers. Mean bilateral IMT was 0.52±0.034 mm in case of smokers, while in non-smokers we measured 0.46±0.036 mm (this difference is significant: p<0.01). PWV and heart rate also showed significantly higher values in smoking group (PWV: p<0.01; heart rate: p<0.05). Unadjusted to age, gender and smoking status there was a significant correlation between IMT and PWV (0.1 mm thicker IMT - 0.6354 m/s faster PWV). Gender differences were found in vascular changes caused by smoking. Conclusion - The adverse effects of smoking on arterial wall thickness and arterial wall stiffness can be seen even at a young age, only after a few years of smoking. Both higher IMT and higher PWV sensitively predict vascular damages.]

Hypertension and nephrology

FEBRUARY 20, 2010

[Pathophysiology, measurement methods and prognostic role of arterial stiffness]

TIMÁR Orsolya, SOLTÉSZ Pál

[In the past decade, a novel property of circulation, arterial stiffness (or decreased arterial distensibility) began to recieve special attention. Three years ago, Hypertonia and Nephrologia has already reviewed the gathered information on the clinical significance of arterial stiffness, described two commonly used stiffness parameters, pulse wave velocity (PWV) and augmentation index (AIx), and assessed the relationship of arterial stiffness and the traditional risk factors. Recently, more and more clinical epidemiological studies provided evidence that the parameters quantifying arterial stiffness are more than innocent side effects of cardiovascular changes, as they can be linked to target organ damage and increased mortality. In the present study, we review the pathomechanism and current methods of measurement of decreased arterial compliance, we summarize the results of recently closed epidemiologic studies and finally, we will briefly discuss possible measures of arterial stiffness treatment.]