Lege Artis Medicinae

[Treatment of hypercholesterolemia in the elderly]

BARNA István1

JULY 01, 2020

Lege Artis Medicinae - 2020;30(06-07)

DOI: https://doi.org/10.33616/lam.30.020

[The percentage of population aged ≥65 years is mounting worldwide, among them those over 75 years is also growing. Athe­ro­scle­rosis is one of the most important and common disorder in the elderly responsible primarily for premature death and cognitive declining and impaired quality of life. Adequate lipid lowering therapy can decrease the risk of cardiovascular events – the main cause behind mortality – can extend life expectancy and improve the quality of life of patients. Effect of dietary treatment on cardiovascular risk reduction is as beneficial as in the younger populations. Regular physical activity reduces the risk of cardiovascular and overall mortality by 26% in males and 20% in females aged ≥65 years. If the medical history is negative for vascu­lar disorders, statin administration as a primary prevention is indicated for patients 65>years. In the population aged 75≥years individual benefit/risk assessment is needed before statin administration. Larger risk reduction can be achieved between 65-75 years than in subjects over 75 years. Concerning secondary prevention, statin treatment is of pre-eminent significance, and its administration is evidence-based in the elderly. For achieving the lipid goals, combined therapy with statin and ezetimibe is recommended in the primary as well as secondary cardiovascular prevention. ]


  1. Semmelweis Egyetem, I. Sz. Belgyógyászati Klinika



Further articles in this publication

Lege Artis Medicinae

[Avoiding unlimited energy drink consumption is a matter of our heart]


[Energy drinks have been gaining unbroken popularity, especially among youngsters and children since they were introduced to the market. Manufacturers promise to improve performance and stamina with consuming the products, classified as non-alcoholic soft drinks. In addition to the vitamins and plant extracts, they contain a significant amount of caffeine and other stimulants (taurine, guarana). Among the active ingredients, caffeine has an outstanding effect and thereby a danger, since its overconsumption – in addition to milder he­mo­dynamic changes – can cause severe cardio­vascular consequences, cardiac arrhythmias, ion channel diseases, increased blood coagulation, myocardial infarction or reduced cerebral blood flow in susceptible consumers. Many case studies have also reported serious cardiovascular attacks among young chronic energy drink consumers. Health impairments of excessive and long-term consumption of energy drinks have been studied increasingly, however there is limited and contradictory evidence on the safety of consumption and the effectiveness of performance enhancement. ]

Lege Artis Medicinae

[Innovations in the treatment of asthma]


Lege Artis Medicinae

[The significance of the identification of SARS-CoV-2 virus and the possible errors of the sampling method]


[The COVID-19 pandemic caused by SARS-CoV-2 virus while emerging suddenly and spreading throughout the globe challenged seriously also the modern medicine. Diag­nostic methods recognising viral infections of the upper airways developed essentially in the last 20 years, and it was specifically progressing during the SARS and MERS epidemics thus facilitating the recognition and identifica­tion of infections by influenza, RS- and adenoviruses as well. Nevertheless the present novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) also de­mon­strated that the relatively simple procedures of naso- and oropharyngeal sampling are fallible too. Thus they may have a relatively high risk of false-negative outcomes. However the correct sampling prior the RT-PCR tests provides reliable diagnosis by high sensitivity and specificity. Thus improving the quality of sampling and avoiding failures by correct training and education of the personnel make more reliable the detection of viral infection or indicate recovery after the infection. Finally, this is a key issue while overcoming the present pan­demic.]

Lege Artis Medicinae

[The “stealth” SARS-CoV-2, not detected by radar]

ÖTVÖS Zoltán

Lege Artis Medicinae

[Minority students in Hungarian medical training]

SZÉL Zsuzsanna

[General health of minority people is usually worse than that of their majority peers and they often expe rience discrimination in the healthcare system. According to international literature, physicians belonging to any minority group are more likely to care for other mi nority people, therefore they may play a key role in reducing healthcare inequities. Anonymous, online questionnaire was distributed to medical students of the four Hungarian universities with medical schools (response rate was 8.86%). In this paper, we analyze our collected data about perceived discrimination with descriptive statistical methods. Results of confirmative statistical analyses (statistical tests) were considered exploratory in nature. 29.6% of respondents self-identified as a member of any minority. 63.0% of minority students and 53.8% of women indicated that they realized discriminated or were harassed in the last 12 months, meanwhile, 37.8% of non-minority students and 31.9% of males have experienced discrimination. Dis­cri­mi­na­tion related to ethnic origin, sexual orientation and disability are regarded as the most widespread forms of discrimination according to our respondents. Students are most likely to say that there is no age related discrimination on the grounds of age – both being under 30 years old (12.0%) and being over 55 (8.6%). Being the member of any minority group seems to have no effect on student’s/ one’s opinion how widespread the forms of dis crimination are. Minority students are more comfortable to work with a member of another minority. However male students feel more uncomfortable to work with a member of sexual or gender minorities compared to female counterparts. Mi­no­rity students tend to be more critical to the universities’ efforts to enhance diversity. Minority students and females may play a key role in reducing discrimination in medical training and in the healthcare system and in providing high-quality care for individuals who belong to any minority. Although there are more females than males in medical training they still report higher occurrence of perceived discrimination. However, it is important to emphasize the low response rate in our study, which does not allow us to draw any general conclusions.]

All articles in the issue

Related contents

Hypertension and nephrology

[Association between cyclothymic affective temperament and hypertension]


[Affective temperaments (cyclothymic, hypertymic, depressive, anxious, irritable) are stable parts of personality and after adolescent only their minor changes are detectable. Their connections with psychopathology is well-described; depressive temperament plays role in major depression, cyclothymic temperament in bipolar II disorder, while hyperthymic temperament in bipolar I disorder. Moreover, scientific data of the last decade suggest, that affective temperaments are also associated with somatic diseases. Cyclothymic temperament is supposed to have the closest connection with hypertension. The prevalence of hypertension is higher parallel with the presence of dominant cyclothymic affective temperament and in this condition the frequency of cardiovascular complications in hypertensive patients was also described to be higher. In chronic hypertensive patients cyclothymic temperament score is positively associated with systolic blood pressure and in women with the earlier development of hypertension. The background of these associations is probably based on the more prevalent presence of common risk factors (smoking, obesity, alcoholism) with more pronounced cyclothymic temperament. The scientific importance of the research of the associations of personality traits including affective temperaments with somatic disorders can help in the identification of higher risk patient subgroups.]

Hypertension and nephrology

[Gout, hyperuricaemia and cardiovascular risk - Effects of allopurinol]


[Hyperuricemia has an increasing clinical relevance due to its pathomechanism and its presence and adverse effects on cardiovascular, metabolic and renal diseases today. Its presence is a world phenomenon and in our country, we have seen increasing incidence rates during the screening surveys in recent years. Convincing evidence suggests that the high uric acid values in cardiovascular and renal diseases is an independent risk factor for CV mortality and their clinical manifestations. Experimental and clinical evidences indicates that in addition to gout, all high uric acid levels should be considered to initiate the XO inhibitor allopurinol treatment. Recently, in some diseases, in the treatment of the underlying disease (especially elderly hypertension, ischemic heart disease, chronic heart failure, chronic kidney failure) is also considered as an adjunct therapy.]

Lege Artis Medicinae

[Pharmacotherapeutic strategies on treatment of patients with high cardiovascular risk based on the 2018 European Hypertension Guidelines]


[The new joint hypertension guidelines of the European Society of Hypertension and European Society of Cardiology will simultaneously be published in August, 2018 in the J. Hypertension and Eur. Heart J. on the diagnostics, evaluation, treatment and follow up of hypertensive patients. This guidelines put emphasis on definition, and therapeutic strategies in patients with high cardiovascular risk. In this paper I summarise the cardiovascular risk factors and put emphasis on possibilities of reduction of cardiovascular risk. ]

Hypertension and nephrology

[Serum uric acid in primary hypertension: cause or consequence? - Data from SEPHAR II Survey]

DOROBANTU Maria, TAUTU Oana-Florentina, BUZAS Roxana, LIGHEZAN Daniel

[Objectives: To evaluate a possible link between serum uric acid (SUA) levels, arterial stiffness and atherogenic index of plasma on one hand and renal function on the other and to test the role of SUA in the assessment of total cardiovascular risk. Materials and methods: We studied serum uric acid levels (SUA) in 1975 subjects included in SEPHAR II survey. We measured arterial stiffness parameters, calculated atherogenic index of plasma and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) by MDRD and CKD-EPI formulae and assessed total cardiovascular risk according to current ESH-ESC risk stratification chart. Results: The highest SUA values were recorded in subjects with grade III HT and were correlated with increased arterial stiffness and with increased atherogenic index of plasma. The lowest eGRF values, assessed by both MDRD and CKD-EPI, were observed among subjects with hyperuricemia and a significant indirect correlation between SUA and eGFR was evidenced. A proportional correlation between SUA values and total CV risk was also obtained. Conclusions: The study supports SUA implication in the pathogenesis of elevated blood pressure and the role of uric acid as a cardiovascular risk factor, particularly for the development of hypertension and renal disease.]

Lege Artis Medicinae

[Clinical trials for evaluating cardiovascular safety of SGLT-2- inhibitor drugs in patients with type 2 diabetes]


[SGLT-2-inihibitors are considered as a new class among oral antidiabetic drugs. The first derivatives of this class became available in the last couple of years in Hungary. According to the requirements from regulatory bodies, randomized, controlled clinical trials have been initiated in order to evaluate the cardiovascular safety of nearly all new antidiabetic drugs in patients with type 2 diabetes. Among SGLT-2-inhibitors, only one trial with empagliflozine has been completed so far. Based on the endpoints of the EMPA-REG OUTCOME trial a significant decrease in different cardiovascular events and total mortality was observed in type 2 diabetic patients with elevated cardiovascular risk. The exact pathomechanism of this beneficial effect has not been clearly understood. Currently, the position statements and scientific guidelines clearly describe the place of SGLT-2-inhibitor drugs in the treatment algorithm; the beneficial effect of empagliflozine on cardiovascular events should seriously be considered when making therapeutic decision. Together with the results of ongoing studies with SGLT-2-inhibitors (dapagliflozine: DECLARE, canagliflozine: CANVAS), these data will provide a more robust evidence about the cardiovascular safety of this new class of oral antidiabetic drugs. ]