Lege Artis Medicinae

[Transvaginal ultrasonography of embryo development in prematurity, sono-embryology I. The embryo and its appendages]

CSABAY László1, SZABÓ István1, NÉMETH János1, PAPP Zoltán1

MAY 27, 1992

Lege Artis Medicinae - 1992;2(05)

[The authors performed serial examinations by a high resolution transvaginal transducer during the first trimester of pregnancy to show the most important stages of the early embryonal development. This is a preliminary study to a prospective, detailed screening programme in the first trimester of pregnancy. The earliest sign of pregnancy can be detected at the 29–31st days of menstrual age using vaginal transducer. During the 5th week the (secondary) yolk sac can be seen, which is an unambiguous evidence of an intrauterine pregnancy. The living embryo can be de monstrated on 36–38th days with the help of the pulsation of the embryonic heart tube. Certain embryonic structures appear in a defined order (developmental „calendar"). The physiologic midgutherniation can be observed during 7–11th weeks. Transvaginal sonography has gained popularity only recently due to technical advances. The main fields of use became gynaecology and early pregnancy, for there is no need to have a full bladder, for the lack of disturbing tissue layers. This method is essentially a combination of the bimanual gynaecological and the ultrasound examination. ]

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  1. Semmelweis Orvostudományi Egyetem I. Szülészeti és Nőgyógyászati Klinika

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Clinical Neuroscience

Alexithymia is associated with cognitive impairment in patients with Parkinson’s disease

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Cognitive dysfunction (CD) is a common non-motor symptom of Parkinson’s disease (PD). Alexithy­mia is a still poorly understood neuropsychiatric feature of PD. Cognitive impairment (especially visuospatial dysfunction and executive dysfunction) and alexithymia share com­mon pathology of neuroanatomical structures. We hypo­thesized that there must be a correlation between CD and alexithymia levels considering this relationship of neuroanatomy. Objective – The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between alexithymia and neurocognitive function in patients with PD. Thirty-five patients with PD were included in this study. The Toronto Alexithymia Scale–20 (TAS-20), Geriatric Depression Inventory (GDI) and a detailed neuropsychological evaluation were performed. Higher TAS-20 scores were negatively correlated with Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS) similarities test score (r =-0.71, p value 0.02), clock drawing test (CDT) scores (r=-0.72, p=0.02) and verbal fluency (VF) (r=-0.77, p<0.01). Difficulty identifying feelings subscale score was negatively correlated with CDT scores (r=-0.74, p=0.02), VF scores (r=-0.66, p=0.04), visual memory immediate recall (r=-0.74, p=0.01). VF scores were also correlated with difficulty describing feelings (DDF) scores (r=-0.66, p=0.04). There was a reverse relationship bet­ween WAIS similarities and DDF scores (r=-0.70, p=0.02), and externally oriented-thinking (r=-0.77,p<0.01). Executive function Z score was correlated with the mean TAS-20 score (r=-62, p=0.03) and DDF subscale score (r=-0.70, p=0.01) Alexithymia was found to be associated with poorer performance on visuospatial and executive function test results. We also found that alexithymia was significantly correlated with depressive symptoms. Presence of alexithymia should therefore warn the clinicians for co-existing CD.