Lege Artis Medicinae

[The 46th Congress of the Hungarian Society of Gastroenterology]


NOVEMBER 21, 2004

Lege Artis Medicinae - 2004;14(11)



Further articles in this publication

Lege Artis Medicinae



[Nowadays Type 2 diabetes is considered as a cardiovascular disease,. The cause of death among 80% of people with Type 2 diabetes is of cardiovascular origin, with the most common cause of death of myocardial infarction. Optimal solution would be the prevention of the disease and there are also some possibilities for intervention. The present paper summarises the role of antidiabetic agents and ACE inhibitors in the prevention of Type 2 diabetes mellitus. The incidence rate of Type 2 diabetes decreased by 36% using acarbose in the STOP NIDDM Trial and by 31% using metformin in the Diabetes Prevention Program. The rate of risk reduction regarding the incidence of Type 2 diabetes during the ALLHAT Study compared the subjects treated with thiazid diuretics among those treated with amlodipine was 25% by the end of the second year and 16% by the end of the fourth year, while the corresponding data for patients treated with lisinopril were 40% and 30%, respectively. The action of lisinopril on the better bioavailability of Insulin like growth factor I. (IGF-I) probably contributes to the beneficial effect of lisinopril on insulin sensitivity.]

Lege Artis Medicinae



[The aim of the author is present a practical MRI guideline for partners clinicians working in general or specialist patient care related to musculoskeletal diseases. The evidence based diagnostic decision-making process requires specific and realistic expectations related to MRI in daily practice. The focus message of the article is that the more exact and specific clinical question arrives, the more accurate and precise answer of the radiologist is achieved. The importance of detailed clinical information based optimal planning is emphasized versus “general” studies based on poor clinical information. It is not less important for the referring physician to prepare and inform the patient prior to the MRI study, with the exclusion criteria and contrast agent application all explained. Very few technical details are presented, only as little as possible to understand the clinically relevant properties of the imaging process.]

Lege Artis Medicinae


PARAGH György, BALOGH Zoltán

[The authors’ brief review follows the changes made to therapeutic guidelines based on primary and secondary prevention trials. They describe the main characteristics of National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel-I (NCEP ATP-I), ATP-II and ATP-III, and the decisions of the Hungarian Consensus Conference with respect to the lowering of lipids. The authors highlight the clinical importance of the evaluation of cardiovascular risk factors before the commencement of lipid-lowering therapy. They emphasize the significance of achieving the target values for low-density lipoprotein. Current dyslipidemia treatment guidelines focus on determining coronary heart disease risk status and matching the intensity of plasma LDL-C reduction to that perceived risk. Adding plasma C-reactive protein measurement to current risk assessment techniques may improve the identification of patients in the primary prevention population who may require more aggressive lipid-lowering therapy.]

Lege Artis Medicinae



[In the article the author reviews some features of autoimmune diseases and defines autoimmunity and autoimmune disease. According to epidemiological data, the number of patients increases and the causes are discussed in this paper. The pathogenetical background, the characteristics of the loss of immunetolerance are detailed. The author deals with the features of the pathomechanism, the course of the diseases and with the problems of the progression and classification. He also presents the expectations of clinicians to molecular medicine.]

Lege Artis Medicinae



[INTRODUCTION - Health care professionals undertaking treatment/nursing of the seriously ill are equally overburdened emotionally, intellectually and physically. This condition might have several, sometimes irreversible negative consequences: avowed difficulties within the communication with patients, families and colleagues, various harms of accumulating, unprocessed stress, severe physical and psychological symptoms of mental burn-out which is very frequent and failures and difficulties of the private life. In our survey we aimed to gain a realistic image of the physical and psychological condition and quality of life of professionals working in Hungarian clinical care in order to provide with indelayable help. METHODS - The basis of the survey was a version of the Hungarostudy 2002 questionnaire, modified for health care professionals. In our sample there were 200 health care professionals dealing with seriously ill and in the control groups 1356 non health care professionals, and 227 health care professionals, choosen from the Hungarostudy survey. In all three groups the proportion of gender, age and education were the same. The results were analysed by the SPSS 10.0 statistical program and the relationship analysis was completed by ANOVA test. RESULTS - The analysis of the answers of those attending in our questionnaire survey - compared to those working in other health care field and to the control group of non health care workers - proves that the ratio of exhaustion and stress-dependent physical and psychological symptoms are prominently, in many cases significantly higher among health care workers dealing with the seriously ill, addiction is more frequent and social net is more unfavourable. These data are even worse for nurses than for doctors and other graduates. CONCLUSION - In treating difficult cases we can start to help with special education that should be general both in gradual and postgradual training.]

All articles in the issue

Related contents

Clinical Neuroscience

[Advanced Parkinson’s disease characteristics in clinical practice: Results from the OBSERVE-PD study and sub-analysis of the Hungarian data]

TAKÁTS Annamária, ASCHERMANN Zsuzsanna, VÉCSEI László, KLIVÉNYI Péter, DÉZSI Lívia, ZÁDORI Dénes, VALIKOVICS Attila, VARANNAI Lajos, ONUK Koray, KINCZEL Beatrix, KOVÁCS Norbert

[The majority of patients with advanced Parkinson’s disease are treated at specialized movement disorder centers. Currently, there is no clear consensus on how to define the stages of Parkinson’s disease; the proportion of Parkinson’s patients with advanced Parkinson’s disease, the referral process, and the clinical features used to characterize advanced Parkinson’s disease are not well delineated. The primary objective of this observational study was to evaluate the proportion of Parkinson’s patients identified as advanced patients according to physician’s judgment in all participating movement disorder centers across the study. Here we evaluate the Hungarian subset of the participating patients. The study was conducted in a cross-sectional, non-interventional, multi-country, multi-center format in 18 countries. Data were collected during a single patient visit. Current Parkinson’s disease status was assessed with Unified Parkinson’s Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS) parts II, III, IV, and V (modified Hoehn and Yahr staging). Non-motor symptoms were assessed using the PD Non-motor Symptoms Scale (NMSS); quality of life was assessed with the PD 8-item Quality-of-Life Questionnaire (PDQ-8). Parkinson’s disease was classified as advanced versus non-advanced based on physician assessment and on questions developed by the Delphi method. Overall, 2627 patients with Parkinson’s disease from 126 sites were documented. In Hungary, 100 patients with Parkinson’s disease were documented in four movement disorder centers, and, according to the physician assessment, 50% of these patients had advanced Parkinson’s disease. Their mean scores showed significantly higher impairment in those with, versus without advanced Parkinson’s disease: UPDRS II (14.1 vs. 9.2), UPDRS IV Q32 (1.1 vs. 0.0) and Q39 (1.1 vs. 0.5), UPDRS V (2.8 vs. 2.0) and PDQ-8 (29.1 vs. 18.9). Physicians in Hungarian movement disorder centers assessed that half of the Parkinson’s patients had advanced disease, with worse motor and non-motor symptom severity and worse QoL than those without advanced Parkinson’s disease. Despite being classified as eligible for invasive/device-aided treatment, that treatment had not been initiated in 25% of these patients.]

Clinical Neuroscience

Evaluation of anxiety, depression and marital relationships in patients with migraine


Aim - The aim of this study was to evaluate the frequency and characteristics of attacks in patients with migraine, to determine the effects of anxiety or depressive symptoms, and to evaluate the marital relationships of patients with migraine. Method - Thirty patients who were admitted to the neurology outpatient clinic of our hospital between July 2018 and October 2018 and were diagnosed with migraine according to the 2013 International Headache Society (IHS) diagnostic criteria were included in this cross-sectional study. Age, sex, headache frequency and severity, depressive traits, marital satisfaction and anxiety status were examined. We used the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), Maudsley Marital Questionnaire (MMQ) and Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) for measuring relevant parameters. Results - The mean severity of migraine pain according to VAS scale was 6.93 ± 1.41 and the mean number of migraine attacks was 4.50 ± 4.24. The mean BDI score of the patients was 12.66 ± 8.98, the mean MMQ-M score was 19.80 ± 12.52, the mean MMQ-S score was 13.20 ± 9.53, the mean STAI-state score was 39.93 ± 10.87 and the mean STAI-trait score was 45.73 ± 8.96. No significant correlation was found between age, number of migraine attacks, migraine duration, migraine headache intensity, and BDI, STAI and MMQ scores (p>0.05). But there was a positive correlation between MMQ-S and scores obtained from the BDI and STAI-state scales (p<0.05). Conclusion - In this study more than half of the migraine patients had mild, moderate or severe depression. A positive correlation was found between sexual dissatisfaction and scale scores of depression and anxiety.

Clinical Oncology

[Complications of infusion treatment with emphasis on extravasation of cytostatics]

HARISI Revekka

[The extravasation of cytostatics is the most signifi cant complication of infusion therapy in cancer treatment. Extravasation refers to the inadvertent infi ltration of cytostatic drugs into subcutaneous or subdermal tissues surrounding the intravenous or intraarterial administration site. According to literature data incidence estimates between 0,01-7%. Extravasated drugs are classifi ed according to their potential for causing damage as vesicant, irritant and nonvesicant. Knowledge of risk factors, the patientrelated and treatment-related ones is important to minimize the occurrence of extravasation. In order to reduce the risk of extravasation, the staff involved in the tumor infusion therapy must be specially trained to implement several preventive and therapeutical protocols. In 2012, ESMO-EONS has put together a new comprehensive treatment protocol on the topic of cytostatics extravasation. Protocol recommended that every oncological department, who administers chemotherapy have to have extravasation trained team and a standby extravasation kit. According to the new ESMO-EONS guideline subcutaneous corticoids are not recommended, anymore. In case of mechloretamine extravasation the recommendation is immediate subcutaneous injection of sodium thiosulfate. After extravasation of anthracyclines, mitomycin C and platin salts the best treatment opportunity is subcutan dimethyl sulfoxide administration. In case of anthracyclines’ extravasation intravenous dexrazoxane treatment is also effective. Hyaluronidase, injected into or under the skin, facilitates absorption of extravasated drugs because of increases connective tissue permeability, promotes the spreading and reduces the local concentration of the extravasated citostatic agents. Hyaluronidase might be effi cacious in preventing skin necrosis by extravasation due to vinca alkaloids. The treatment of unresolved tissue necrosis or pain lasting more than 10 days is surgical debridement. Because of the medical and juristic importance of the extravasation event, it is necessary to establish uniform guidelines for treatment of extravasation, in all Hungarian Oncological Centers.]

Lege Artis Medicinae

[Thiazide- or thiazide-like diuretics should be used in the treatment of patients with hypertension? Particularities of the situation in Hungary]


[Diuretics have remained the cornerstone of the antihypertensive treatment since their widespreading in the 1960s. According to the 2018 ESC/ESH Guidelines for the management of arterial hypertension, in the absence of evidence from direct comparator trials and recognizing that many of the approved single-pill combinations are based on hydrochlorothiazide, this drug and thiazide-like indapamide can be considered suitable antihypertensive agents. In the 2018 Hungarian guidelines indapamide is named as the most efficacious diuretic in the treatment of patients with hypertension. The aim of the publication is redefining thiazide- and thiazide-like diuretic use in the treatment of hypertensive patients, with particular attention to presently available hydrochlorothia­zide and indapamide, and their combination drugs in Hungary.]

Hypertension and nephrology

[The Comprehensive Hungarian Screening Program for Health Protection 2010-2020]

KISS István, DANKOVICS Gergely