Lege Artis Medicinae

[SCIENTIFIC DIGEST]

FEBRUARY 21, 2006

Lege Artis Medicinae - 2006;16(02)

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Lege Artis Medicinae

[In the Winter Night]

NEMESÁNSZKY Elemér

Lege Artis Medicinae

[When “Hard” Science Softens Up...]

BÁNFALVI Attila

Lege Artis Medicinae

[THE PROBLEM OF CHILDHOOD OBESITY]

RODÉ Magdolna

[Obesity represents a major public health problem in both developed and developing countries having rapidly increased in prevalence in the past two decades. Childhood obesity is of particular concern. Two of its associated diseases require special attention; metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes one of its components that are increasingly diagnosed in childhood. A key to prevention and treatment is healthy lifestyle. The importance of education to healthy lifestyle from early childhood cannot be overemphasized.]

Lege Artis Medicinae

[In the focus: antibiotics]

SZALKA András

Lege Artis Medicinae

[PRINCIPLES AND NATIONAL REGULATIONS OF BLOOD DONOR QUALIFICATION]

TOMONKÓ Magdolna

[During the assessment of blood donor candidates the physician considers two factors; first, whether the loss of 450 ml blood would be of any risk for them (e.g., because of hypotension) and second, whether they have any illness, current (seasonal allergy, antibiotic use, etc.) or chronic conditions (oncological or autoimmune disease, drug use, etc.) that may confer risk to the recipient. For the safety of blood preparations it is essential that the donors are dependable individuals who lead a lifestyle of low risk of getting infected (by HIV, hepatitis, etc.). Hungarian practice concerning donor qualification are generally stricter (e.g., because of the differences in the health care system, in the health culture) than the directive of the European Union. This implies that a number of donor candidates are temporarily or permanently disqualified. Following medical interventions (e.g., surgery, transfusion), environmental effects (e.g., radiation exposure) and recovery from diseases, however, the donor may again give blood after a certain period of time. Certain chronic diseases, if properly managed and if the patient is in perfect general condition, do not constitute a cause for exclusion either. General practicioners can greatly contribute to safe national blood supply by identifying and advising potential blood donors.]

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Hypertension and nephrology

[Association between cyclothymic affective temperament and hypertension]

NEMCSIK János, BATTA Dóra, KŐRÖSI Beáta, RIHMER Zoltán

[Affective temperaments (cyclothymic, hypertymic, depressive, anxious, irritable) are stable parts of personality and after adolescent only their minor changes are detectable. Their connections with psychopathology is well-described; depressive temperament plays role in major depression, cyclothymic temperament in bipolar II disorder, while hyperthymic temperament in bipolar I disorder. Moreover, scientific data of the last decade suggest, that affective temperaments are also associated with somatic diseases. Cyclothymic temperament is supposed to have the closest connection with hypertension. The prevalence of hypertension is higher parallel with the presence of dominant cyclothymic affective temperament and in this condition the frequency of cardiovascular complications in hypertensive patients was also described to be higher. In chronic hypertensive patients cyclothymic temperament score is positively associated with systolic blood pressure and in women with the earlier development of hypertension. The background of these associations is probably based on the more prevalent presence of common risk factors (smoking, obesity, alcoholism) with more pronounced cyclothymic temperament. The scientific importance of the research of the associations of personality traits including affective temperaments with somatic disorders can help in the identification of higher risk patient subgroups.]

Clinical Neuroscience

[Decisional collisions between evidence and experience based medicine in care of people with epilepsy]

RAJNA Péter

[Background – Based on the literature and his long-term clinical practice the author stresses the main collisions of evidence and experience based medicine in the care of people with epilepsy. Purpose – To see, what are the professional decisions of high responsibility in the epilepsy-care, in whose the relevant clinical research is still lacking or does not give a satisfactory basis. Methods – Following the structure of the Hungarian Guideline the author points the critical situations and decisions. He explains also the causes of the dilemmas: the lack or uncertainty of evidences or the difficulty of scientific investigation of the situation. Results – There are some priorities of experience based medicine in the following areas: definition of epilepsy, classification of seizures, etiology – including genetic background –, role of precipitating and provoking factors. These are able to influence the complex diagnosis. In the pharmacotherapy the choice of the first drug and the optimal algorithm as well as the tasks during the care are also depends on personal experiences sometimes contradictory to the official recommendations. Same can occur in the choice of the non-pharmacological treatments and rehabilitation. Discussion and conclusion – Personal professional experiences (and interests of patients) must be obligatory accessories of evidence based attitude, but for achieving the optimal results, in some situations they replace the official recommendations. Therefore it is very important that the problematic patients do meet experts having necessary experiences and also professional responsibility to help in these decisions. ]

Clinical Neuroscience

[A visual based proto-consciousness model of human thinking]

SZŐKE Henrik, HEGYI Gabriella, CSÁSZÁR Noémi, VAS József Pál, KAPÓCS Gábor, BÓKKON István

[Background and objectives – Here we present our results of many years of research on the visual (pictorial) representation model expanded with some new ideas in a simplified form. Our goal is to make available our new pictorial model for a broader scientific community and to point to its possible importance in the future. Method – Own scientific publications, selective literature analysis and preliminary experiments. Results – Our several scientific publications and preliminary experiments were presented outlining our new molecular visual representation model as brain might be able to generate internal images by regulated biophotons in early V1 retinotopic visual regions. We also proposed that some of symptoms and characteristics of autism and savantism may suggest that visual (pictorial) thinking might be a possible cognitive model in the case of healthy people as well. Our model can present a uniform molecular basis for many visual related phenomena. Conclusions – It is possible that a so-called visual proto-consciousness might be developed in evolution, which is directly related to the retinotopic visual areas, and which has a different cognitive ability from verbal abilities. If our model can be exactly proved it presents a common molecular basis for various visual phenomena such as visual perception and imagination, phosphenes ect. and might open new ways in several fields of science such as visual prosthesis for the blind, artificial intelligence, visual neuroscience, cognitive and autism research.]

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[Scientific Program]

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[3rd International Scientific Symposium on Parkinson’s Disease]

TAKÁTS Annamária