Lege Artis Medicinae

[PENILE VEIN THROMBOSIS AT YOUNG AGE]

KOVÁCS GÁBOR, GASZTONYI Beáta, BATTYÁNY István, NAGY Ágnes, BUZOGÁNY István, KASSAI Miklós, HUNYADY Béla, LOSONCZY Hajna

DECEMBER 20, 2005

Lege Artis Medicinae - 2005;15(12)

[INTRODUCTION - Mondor’s disease is an uncommon disorder occuring mostly in middleaged women and characterized by superficial thrombophlebitis classically involving the thoraco- epigastric veins. Rarely, cases have been reported in atypical sites (upper arms, abdomen, groin and penis). CASE REPORT - This is the first case being published in the Hungarian literature. The young male patient's complaints were caused by penile vein thrombosis which was demonstrated on physical examination and Doppler ultrasonography. Since hereditary thrombophilia and malignancy has been ruled out, we assume that local trauma and venous stasis caused by previous abdominal surgery have been the etiological factors of the disease. CONCLUSION - We give a review of the literature and would like to draw the attention to this rare type of thrombosis, its risk factors and the difficulties of the therapy.]

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Lege Artis Medicinae

[“I See that it is Worth it...” An Interview with Professor Tamás Bender by Elemér Nemesánszky, LAM’s Editor-in-Chief]

NEMESÁNSZKY Elemér, GYIMESI Andrea

Lege Artis Medicinae

[LINKAGE OF POSTPRANDIAL LIPAEMIA AND GENES MUTATIONS IN FAMILIAL DYSLIPIDEMIA]

REIBER István

[The familial combined hyperlipidemia (FCH) is the most common form of heritable lipid disorder. The prevalence of FCH is 0.5 to 2.0% in the general population, and 15 to 20% in the survivors of myocardial infarction before the age of 60 years. Healthy people spend most part of their life in postprandial state, which is the sum of the 6-8 hours after each main meal spanning over 20 or 24 hour per day. After the ingestion of the fat rich meal the intestinal chylomicrons disturbs the balance of lipid metabolism. The disorder of the lipid transport does not always manifest itself in the fasting state when the lipid transport system is yet at poise. So, the measuring of fasting triglyceride does not reflect exactly the metabolic capacity and the true atherogen risk of the subject. The healthy FCH family members may have got abnormal higher and extended postprandial lipemia contrast of the normal fasting triglyceride levels. The distributions of PvuII and HindIII polymorphisms in FCH are different from normolipidemic controls. At the same time, there is significantly higher incidence of the apo e4 allele. The apo E4/3 genotypes have got higher and extended postprandial lipemia in FCH subjects. In the investigated international and Hungarian FCH groups have got the minor allele of apolipoprotein AV T/C polymorphism more frequently. The carrying status of the minor allele is accompanied with higher fasting lipid levels and associated with higher and extended postprandial lipemia. The Hungarian results suggest a decreased and extended catabolism of the remnants in FCH caused by apoAV T/C promoter variation that seems to have a more direct effect on the postprandial status than that of apoE 3/3-4/3 polymorphism. The knowledge of characteristics of postprandial lipemia influenced by the mutations of genes described by us are more useful as only the fasting triglyceride level and it is as effective as LDL- or HDL-cholesterol value in the measuring of prognosis of development of vascular disease with athero-thrombotic origin.]

Lege Artis Medicinae

[Against the Pharma Industry or for the More Reliable Knowledge?]

BÁNFALVI Attila

Lege Artis Medicinae

[PRECONDITIONING AND CARDIOPROTECTION WITH VOLATILE ANESTHETICS]

SZÉKELY Andrea, BREUER Tamás

[A rapidly growing body of experimental evidence indicates that volatile anesthetics protect the myocardium against reversible and irreversible ischemia and reperfusion injury. Volatile anesthetics exerted preconditioning effects, resembling to ischemic preconditioning in different animal models. This results in direct protection against ischemic damage, or an indirect enhancement of the ability of myocardial mitochondrial KATP channels to open in response to an agonist. In addition, volatile anesthetics also reduce the severity of reperfusion injury when administered only during reperfusion. These findings might expand our clinical possibilities in the perioperative management of ischemic cardiac dysfunction. Indeed, several recent publications reported on improved postoperative hemodynamic function and lowered level of ischemic cardiac biomarkers in patients anesthetized with volatile anesthetics during coronary artery bypass grafting. The potential applicability of these finding is subject of further research.]

Lege Artis Medicinae

[A Pakistani Diary]

SZALAI László

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MAIHOUB Stefani, MOLNÁR András, CSIKÓS András, KANIZSAI Péter, TAMÁS László, SZIRMAI Ágnes

[Background – Dizziness is one of the most frequent complaints when a patient is searching for medical care and resolution. This can be a problematic presentation in the emergency department, both from a diagnostic and a management standpoint. Purpose – The aim of our study is to clarify what happens to patients after leaving the emergency department. Methods – 879 patients were examined at the Semmel­weis University Emergency Department with vertigo and dizziness. We sent a questionnaire to these patients and we had 308 completed papers back (110 male, 198 female patients, mean age 61.8 ± 12.31 SD), which we further analyzed. Results – Based on the emergency department diagnosis we had the following results: central vestibular lesion (n = 71), dizziness or giddiness (n = 64) and BPPV (n = 51) were among the most frequent diagnosis. Clarification of the final post-examination diagnosis took several days (28.8%), and weeks (24.2%). It was also noticed that 24.02% of this population never received a proper diagnosis. Among the population only 80 patients (25.8%) got proper diagnosis of their complaints, which was supported by qualitative statistical analysis (Cohen Kappa test) result (κ = 0.560). Discussion – The correlation between our emergency department diagnosis and final diagnosis given to patients is low, a phenomenon that is also observable in other countries. Therefore, patient follow-up is an important issue, including the importance of neurotology and possibly neurological examination. Conclusion – Emergency diagnosis of vertigo is a great challenge, but despite of difficulties the targeted and quick case history and exact examination can evaluate the central or peripheral cause of the balance disorder. Therefore, to prevent declination of the quality of life the importance of further investigation is high.]

Clinical Neuroscience

[The role of sleep in the relational memory processes ]

CSÁBI Eszter, ZÁMBÓ Ágnes, PROKECZ Lídia

[A growing body of evidence suggests that sleep plays an essential role in the consolidation of different memory systems, but less is known about the beneficial effect of sleep on relational memory processes and the recognition of emotional facial expressions, however, it is a fundamental cognitive skill in human everyday life. Thus, the study aims to investigate the effect of timing of learning and the role of sleep in relational memory processes. 84 young adults (average age: 22.36 (SD: 3.22), 21 male/63 female) participated in our study, divided into two groups: evening group and morning group indicating the time of learning. We used the face-name task to measure relational memory and facial expression recognition. There were two sessions for both groups: the immediate testing phase and the delayed retesting phase, separated by 24 hours. 84 young adults (average age: 22.36 (SD: 3.22), 21 male/63 female) participated in our study, divided into two groups: evening group and morning group indicating the time of learning. We used the face-name task to measure relational memory and facial expression recognition. There were two sessions for both groups: the immediate testing phase and the delayed retesting phase, separated by 24 hours. Our results suggest that the timing of learning and sleep plays an important role in the stabilizing process of memory representation to resist against forgetting.]

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The etiology and age-related properties of patients with delirium in coronary intensive care unit and its effects on inhospital and follow up prognosis

ALTAY Servet, GÜRDOGAN Muhammet, KAYA Caglar, KARDAS Fatih, ZEYBEY Utku, CAKIR Burcu, EBIK Mustafa, DEMIR Melik

Delirium is a syndrome frequently encountered in intensive care and associated with a poor prognosis. Intensive care delirium is mostly based on general and palliative intensive care data in the literature. In this study, we aimed to investigate the incidence of delirium in coronary intensive care unit (CICU), related factors, its relationship with inhospital and follow up prognosis, incidence of age-related delirium and its effect on outcomes. This study was conducted with patients hospitalized in CICU of a tertiary university hospital between 01 August 2017 and 01 August 2018. Files of all patients were examined in details, and demographic, clinic and laboratory parameters were recorded. Patients confirmed with psychiatry consultation were included in the groups of patients who developed delirium. Patients were divided into groups with and without delirium developed, and baseline features, inhospital and follow up prognoses were investigated. In addition, patients were divided into four groups as <65 years old, 65-75 yo, 75-84 yo and> 85 yo, and the incidence of delirium, related factors and prognoses were compared among these groups. A total of 1108 patients (mean age: 64.4 ± 13.9 years; 66% men) who were followed in the intensive care unit with variable indications were included in the study. Of all patients 11.1% developed delirium in the CICU. Patients who developed delirium were older, comorbidities were more frequent, and these patients showed increased inflammation findings, and significant increase in inhospital mortality compared to those who did not develop delirium (p<0.05). At median 9-month follow up period, rehospitalization, reinfarction, cognitive dysfunction, initiation of psychiatric therapy and mortality were significantly higher in the delirium group (p<0.05). When patients who developed delirium were divided into four groups by age and analyzed, incidence of delirium and mortality rate in delirium group were significantly increased by age (p<0.05). Development of delirium in coronary intensive care unit is associated with increased inhospital and follow up morbidity and mortality. Delirium is more commonly seen in geriatric patients and those with comorbidity, and is associated with a poorer prognosis. High-risk patients should be more carefully monitored for the risk of delirium.

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Cyanocobalamin and cholecalciferol synergistically improve functional and histopathological nerve healing in experimental rat model

ALBAY Cem, ADANIR Oktay, AKKALP Kahraman Asli, DOGAN Burcu Vasfiye, GULAEC Akif Mehmet, BEYTEMUR Ozan

Introduction - Peripheral nerve injury (PNI) is a frequent problem among young adults. Hopefully, regeneration can occur in PNI unlike central nervous system. If nerve cut is complete, gold standard treatment is surgery, but incomplete cuts have been tried to be treated by medicines. The aim of the study was to evaluate and compare clinical and histopathological outcomes of independent treatment of each of Vitamin B12 (B12) and Vitamin D3 (D3) and their combination on sciatic nerve injury in an experimental rat model. Materials and methods - Experimental animal study was performed after the approval of BEH Ethics Committee No. 2015/10. 32 rats were grouped into four (n=8) according to treatment procedures, such as Group 1 (controls with no treatment), Group 2 (intraperitoneal 1 mg/kg/day B12), Group 3 (oral 3500 IU/kg/week D3), Group 4 (intraperitoneal 1 mg/kg/day B12+ oral 3500 IU/kg/week D3). Sciatic Functional Index (SFI) and histopathological analysis were performed. Results - SFIs of Group 2, 3, 4 were statistically significantly higher than controls. Group 2 and 3 were statistically not different, however Group 4 was statistically significantly higher than others according to SFI. Axonal degeneration (AD) in all treatment groups were statistically significantly lower than in Group 1. AD in Group 4 was significantly lower than in Group 2 and 3; there was no significant difference between Group 2 and 3. There was no significant difference between Group 1,2 and 3 in Axonolysis (A). But A of Group 4 was significantly very much lower than all others. Oedema- inflammation (OE-I) in all treatment groups were significantly lower than in Group 1; there was no significant difference between Group 2 and group 4. OE-I in Group 2 and 4 were significantly lower than in Group 3. There were no significant differences between Group 1, 2 and 3 in damage level scores; score of Group 4 was significantly lower than of Group 1. Conclusions - B12 and D3 were found effective with no statistically significant difference. But combined use of B12 and D3 improve nerve healing synergistically. We recommend combined use of B12 and D3 after PNI as soon as possible.

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