Lege Artis Medicinae



OCTOBER 20, 2005

Lege Artis Medicinae - 2005;15(10)

[After a brief historical summary of molecular imaging and therapy (earlier called isotope diagnostics or nuclear medicine), which has more than 50 years history in Hungary, the author presents comparative international information regarding the status of this particular discipline in Hungary. He distinguishes between “single photon” or traditional techniques and “double photon” or PET methods. Besides listing well-known traditional methods, the author gives additional details and prognosis about Hungarian PET and PET-CT investigations playing increasingly important roles, especially in the field of oncology.]



Further articles in this publication

Lege Artis Medicinae

[Health care and politics: who is the prisoner and who is the provost?]


Lege Artis Medicinae

[In the focus: COPD]


Lege Artis Medicinae

[Is Routine Screening Recommended for Detecting Subclinical Thyroid Dysfunction?]


Lege Artis Medicinae



[The recent completion of the sequence of the human genome - thanks to the developments in biotechnology - has increased interest in genetics, but confusion remains about the role of genetic information in the medical practice. The role of genomics (a term coined only 15 years ago) in medicine is even more confusing. This review summarizes briefly the most important advances relating to the robust development in biotechnology, by which the practice of medicine has entered an era where the individual patient’s genome could help to determine the optimal approach to care, whether it is preventive, diagnostic, or therapeutic.]

Lege Artis Medicinae

[Establishing the Medical History Museum in Hungary]


All articles in the issue

Related contents

Clinical Neuroscience

[The applicability of 123I-FP-CIT SPECT dopamine transporter imaging in clinical practice]

PERLAKI Gábor, SZEKERES Sarolta, JANSZKY József, DEZSŐ Dániel, ASCHERMANN Zsuzsanna, ZÁMBÓ Katalin, KOVÁCS Norbert

[The 123I-FP-CIT dopamine transporter SPECT imaging is a sensitive method to assess functional dopaminergic neuron terminals in the striatum. The method has also been available in Hungary for years. There are two main indications: (i) to help differentiate essential tremor from clinically uncertain Parkinsonism, including patients with early symptoms and (ii) to help differentiate dementia with Lewy bodies from Alzheimer’s disease. The aim of this paper is to review 123I-FP-CIT SPECT imaging based on international data/guidelines and our own experiences, thereby assisting nuclear medicine practitioners and neurologists.]

Clinical Oncology

[The role of PET in clinical oncology]


[Positron emission tomography (PET) has earned an important role in clinical imaging, where it is used almost exclusively as hybrid modality such as PET/CT and PET/MR. The driving force behind the development of the method and the increasing clinical penetration of PET in the past two decades was clearly its use in Oncology. The most used tracer in PET is the 18 F-labeled fl uoro-deoxy-glucose (FDG). With the help of this molecule malignant tumors and their metastases, in which anaerobic glycolysis is typically increased, can be identifi ed with high sensitivity in the total body volume. However, FDG is not a tumor specifi c tracer, thus both false positivity and false negativity may occure which reduces the diagnostic accuracy. Indications of FDG PET studies in Oncology continuously evolved, owing to scientifi c publications, large scale national programs and even health-economic considerations. This publication describes the well-established indications of FDG PET/CT(MR) tests in cancer diagnostics and furthermore discusses more recent new PET tracers already being applied as well as those expected to be used in the future.]

Clinical Neuroscience

[99-mTc-HMPAO single photon emission computed tomography examinations in genetically determined neurometabolic disorders]

ARANKA László, AMBRUS Edit, VÖRÖS Erika, SVEKUS András, KÓBOR Jenõ, BEREG Edit, PALATKA János, PÁVICS László

[The aim of our study was to determine regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) abnormalities in different types of enzymopathies. Patients and methods - Among the patients with genetically determined enzymopathies 3 patients had aminoacidopathies, and 11 had different types of encephalopathies, from which 10 had mitochondrial encephalomyopathy (MEMP), and 1 patient had hyperuricaemic encephalopathy. Besides the mentioned 14 patients, 1 had ceroid lipofuscinosis and another patient had tuberous sclerosis. The further distribution of the MEMP patients’ group was the following - 5 patients had MEMP with lactic acidosis, 5 had Leigh’s disease (subacute necrotizing encephalopathy), from which 1 had cytochrome-c-oxidase deficiency (COX). Additionally in all patients were performed cerebral MRI and SPECT examination 10 min. after intravenous administration of 20 Mbq/kg 99 mTc-HMPAO. Results - Fourteen out of 16 SPECT findings were pathologic, showing decreased focal frontal/temporal/temporoparietal cerebral blood perfusion. Aminoacidopathic group - all the 3 patients revealed pathologic signs from the aminoacidopathic patients’ group. Among them the ornithine transcarbamylase (OTC) heterozygous female patient with left-sided hemiparesis caused by hyperammonemic stroke at 10 month-age, showed right sided temporoparietal, occipital and left frontal hypoperfusion, nearly 6 years after the cerebral vascular attack. This finding might be resulted because of diaschisis. Mitochondrial encephalo-myopathic (MEMP) group - all the four patients with MEMP and lactic acidosis showed focal hypoperfusion in the temporal region, while the perfusion was normal in the COX deficient patient and in 2 Leigh’s disease (subacute necrotizing encephalopathy) patients. In the remaining 1 Leigh’s patient frontotemporal hypoperfusion was found. In all patients there were non specific structural abnormalities detected by MRI - cortical and subcortical atrophy, and scattered demyelination foci. In the case of ceroid lipofuscinosis the MRI showed cerebral atrophy and cerebellar hypoplasia, and the SPECT showed right frontal and occipital hypoperfusion, bilateral parietal physiological riping process. The patient with tuberous sclerosis showed bilateral temporo-occipital hypoperfusion. Conclusion - 1. SPECT images demonstrated hypoperfusion rCBF changes in 14 out of all 16 patients. 2. Regional cerebral/cerebellar hypoperfusion was detected by SPECT in mitochondrial encephalomyopathies, with lactate acidosis and aminoacidopathies giving high informative value about the cerebral perfusion.]

Hungarian Radiology

[Radiological diagnostics in bone metastases]


[Imaging plays a crucial role in defining bone metastases, and thus, therapy planning. We are responsible for accurate data collection, pre-treatment evaluation, evaluation of therapy response and post-treatment evaluation. Precision highly depends on the expertise and experience of the evaluating radiologist, and therefore, being familiar with the latest literature is essential. The bone status can be detected well by bone scan, analysed by conventional X-ray examination and by the cross sectional digital imaging modalities. The whole body PET/CT functional imaging is becoming increasingly popular in the metastatic workup of patients and for monitoring response to therapy. MRI has been found to be the most accurate method for bone metastasis in most comparative evaluations in the literature. This article is a review of the latest papers focusing on the clinical significance of the imaging results in bone metastasis diagnostics.]

Clinical Neuroscience

[Neurological and psychiatrical prospects of apathy]


[During his long practice as head physician of a neurological and psychiatrical department with over 100 beds performed the examination and department of more than a hundred thousand patients. Based on the acquired experience and the data of the most recent literature he treats every aspect of the apathy syndrome. He emphasizes the multidisciplinary approach during both establishing the causes and the examination and treatment of patients. In order to clarify the diagnosis consultations with other disciplines must be used as well as the the knowledge provided by the now essential CT, MRI, PET, SPECT. The author discusses the international therapeutical possibilities and practice after the recently alredy possible exact diagnosis.]