Lege Artis Medicinae

[Helicobacter pylori infection and practical questions of therapy]

RÁCZ István

MAY 20, 2001

Lege Artis Medicinae - 2001;11(05)

[According to our knowledge, Helicobacter pylori is a major factor in the pathogenesis of peptic ulcer disease. The prevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection is 70-80% in ulcer patients with the bacteria colonising the mucous surface of the antral mucosa. Eradication therapy against the bacteria leads to complete healing of ulcer disease in about 85-90% of cases. Indications for the eradication and recommended treatment modalities are outlined in several consensus reports; however, in everyday practice a case by case decision is necessary. Present paper summarises two different cases. In the first, the patient has suffered from several relapses of ulcer disease and a successful eradication was performed. Despite of the healing of the ulcer, this patient continued to have prolonged dyspeptic symptoms which called for maintenance antisecretory therapy. The second case is an example that even in a Helicobacter pylori infected patient there could be other reasons for the ulcer pathogenesis. Thorough examinations revealed duodenal manifestation of Crohn’s disease as the background. The message of presented cases is that in each patient individual adaptation of diagnostic and therapeutic algorithms is recommended.]



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[Molecular morphological methods in laboratory medicine]


[Today, the increasing technical arsenal of molecular morphology has not only methodological importance, but also a revolutionary role in diagnostic laboratory medicine. Techniques previously used only in basic research have become widespread in routine diagnostics by now. The development of methodology for detection of genetic alterations has enabled laboratory tests not only to define disease associated pathobiochemical alterations, but also to identify the genetic background of diseases as well. Evolution of these methods caused qualitative changes not only in detection of disease specific alterations, but also in revealing increased individual susceptibility (sometimes at population level) indicating genetic predisposition to the disease. Recently, the classical methodology based on genetic microscopic morphology has been gradually supplemented or even replaced by different in situ hybridization techniques in many laboratories. Using these techniques chromosomal alterations in cells and tissues (including tumor cells) can be detected within one day (or maximum 1-2 days) without in vitro manipulation of cells. These improved techniques allow us to monitor chromosomal changes after the treatment of genetic diseases or define these alterations induced by environmental exposures.]

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KOVÁCS Ferenc, GYÖKERES Tibor, TAKÁCS Imre Géza, PADÁNYI István, FEKETE Csaba, OROSZ Zsolt, PAP Ákos

[INTRODUCTION - The simultaneous presence of gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma (MALT) and a gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST) is an extremely rare finding that has not been published until now. CASE REPORT - The authors report on a 78- year-old man who was referred to their department with an emergency upper gastrointestinal bleeding. Urgent gastroscopy revealed a bleeding ulcer in the middle third of the stomach. On the follow-up endoscopy 6 weeks later, an umbilicated polypoid lesion was found proximal to the healed ulcer, which was subsequently removed by elective surgery. Histology and immunohistochemical staining of the specimen for c-Kit confirmed the diagnosis of gastrointestinal stromal tumour. A few weeks later the patient was readmitted because of haematemesis. Upon detailed histological examination of the biopsy specimens taken from the multiple superficial ulcers found near the previous lesion, MALT-lymphoma was diagnosed. The absence of Helicobacter pylori was confirmed by repeated histological examinations, serology and urea breath test. CONCLUSION - This is the first report on a patient with simultaneous presence of a gastrointestinal stromal tumour and gastric mucosaassociated lymphoid tissue lymphoma with H. pylori negativity. Several observations suggest that the development of malignant tumours of the stomach is also associated with H. pylori infection. In view of the reported case, the possibility of a common aetiology of these two neoplasms other than H. pylori infection is discussed.]

Clinical Neuroscience

Alexithymia is associated with cognitive impairment in patients with Parkinson’s disease

SENGUL Yildizhan, KOCAK Müge, CORAKCI Zeynep, SENGUL Serdar Hakan, USTUN Ismet

Cognitive dysfunction (CD) is a common non-motor symptom of Parkinson’s disease (PD). Alexithy­mia is a still poorly understood neuropsychiatric feature of PD. Cognitive impairment (especially visuospatial dysfunction and executive dysfunction) and alexithymia share com­mon pathology of neuroanatomical structures. We hypo­thesized that there must be a correlation between CD and alexithymia levels considering this relationship of neuroanatomy. Objective – The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between alexithymia and neurocognitive function in patients with PD. Thirty-five patients with PD were included in this study. The Toronto Alexithymia Scale–20 (TAS-20), Geriatric Depression Inventory (GDI) and a detailed neuropsychological evaluation were performed. Higher TAS-20 scores were negatively correlated with Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS) similarities test score (r =-0.71, p value 0.02), clock drawing test (CDT) scores (r=-0.72, p=0.02) and verbal fluency (VF) (r=-0.77, p<0.01). Difficulty identifying feelings subscale score was negatively correlated with CDT scores (r=-0.74, p=0.02), VF scores (r=-0.66, p=0.04), visual memory immediate recall (r=-0.74, p=0.01). VF scores were also correlated with difficulty describing feelings (DDF) scores (r=-0.66, p=0.04). There was a reverse relationship bet­ween WAIS similarities and DDF scores (r=-0.70, p=0.02), and externally oriented-thinking (r=-0.77,p<0.01). Executive function Z score was correlated with the mean TAS-20 score (r=-62, p=0.03) and DDF subscale score (r=-0.70, p=0.01) Alexithymia was found to be associated with poorer performance on visuospatial and executive function test results. We also found that alexithymia was significantly correlated with depressive symptoms. Presence of alexithymia should therefore warn the clinicians for co-existing CD.

Hypertension and nephrology

[About the care of patients with hyperuricaemia and gout]

[This consensus document is intended to provide guidance for the effective and efficient treatment of asymptomatic individuals with high uric acid levels and gout patients.]

Clinical Neuroscience

[What happens to vertiginous population after emission from the Emergency Department?]

MAIHOUB Stefani, MOLNÁR András, CSIKÓS András, KANIZSAI Péter, TAMÁS László, SZIRMAI Ágnes

[Background – Dizziness is one of the most frequent complaints when a patient is searching for medical care and resolution. This can be a problematic presentation in the emergency department, both from a diagnostic and a management standpoint. Purpose – The aim of our study is to clarify what happens to patients after leaving the emergency department. Methods – 879 patients were examined at the Semmel­weis University Emergency Department with vertigo and dizziness. We sent a questionnaire to these patients and we had 308 completed papers back (110 male, 198 female patients, mean age 61.8 ± 12.31 SD), which we further analyzed. Results – Based on the emergency department diagnosis we had the following results: central vestibular lesion (n = 71), dizziness or giddiness (n = 64) and BPPV (n = 51) were among the most frequent diagnosis. Clarification of the final post-examination diagnosis took several days (28.8%), and weeks (24.2%). It was also noticed that 24.02% of this population never received a proper diagnosis. Among the population only 80 patients (25.8%) got proper diagnosis of their complaints, which was supported by qualitative statistical analysis (Cohen Kappa test) result (κ = 0.560). Discussion – The correlation between our emergency department diagnosis and final diagnosis given to patients is low, a phenomenon that is also observable in other countries. Therefore, patient follow-up is an important issue, including the importance of neurotology and possibly neurological examination. Conclusion – Emergency diagnosis of vertigo is a great challenge, but despite of difficulties the targeted and quick case history and exact examination can evaluate the central or peripheral cause of the balance disorder. Therefore, to prevent declination of the quality of life the importance of further investigation is high.]