Lege Artis Medicinae

[ Fine arts; Biography of Constantijn Huygens]

BALOGH Tamás1

MARCH 01, 2000

Lege Artis Medicinae - 2000;10(03)

AFFILIATIONS

  1. ELTE, Néderlandisztikai Központ, Budapest

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Further articles in this publication

Lege Artis Medicinae

[The role of coronary artery revascularization in the management of heart failure and systolic left ventricular disfunction]

LENGYEL Mária

[Ischemic heart disease accounts for about 70% of chronic systolic heart failure and severe systolic left ventricular dysfunction. Prognosis of ischemic heart failure is worse than that of non-ischemic heart failure and can only be moderately improved with optimal drug treatment. Further improvement may be expected from revascularization in the presence of reversible left ventricular dysfunction which is called myocardial viability. Viability associated with chronic left ventricular dysfunction is caused by hibernation. Low dose dobutamine stress echocardiography is the best imaging modality to predict the improvement of left ventricular function after revascularization. Myocardial contrast echocardiography can further improve the diagnostic value of dobutamine echocardiography. The disadvantage of nuclear imaging methods for the diagnosis of viability is their low specificity. Revascularization surgery improves left ventricular function and survival when the amount of viable myocardium is adequate. However, the non-revascularized viable myocardium is an unstable condition which can effect the prognosis adversely. Although there are no randomized studies, coronary bypass surgery is considered indicated for severe left ventricular dysfunction if the viability of the myocardium and the operability of the coronary arteries are estabilished, even in the absence of angina. To establish these criteria for revascularization imaging studies (preferably low dose dobu tamine stress echocardiography) and coronary angiography are required. ]

Lege Artis Medicinae

[Action on Secondary Prevention through Intervention to Reduce Events]

MATOS Lajos

Lege Artis Medicinae

[The microbiology pharmacokinetics and clinical use of carbapenems]

BÁN Éva, PRINZ Gyula

[ Imipenem and meropenem the two currently available carbapenems inhibit the synthesis of the cell wall similarly to other bactericidal B-lactam antimicrobials. These agents have excellent activity against the vast majority of aerobic and anaerobic Gram-positive and Gram-negative organisms. In addition to other B-lactam resistant microbes (e.g. Chlamydia, Mycoplasma) only Stenotrophomonas maltophilia and Enterococcus faecium bacteria are naturally resistant to carbapenems. Carbapenems are extremely stable compounds against nearly all types of B-lactamases: from the penicillinase of Staphylococcus to Class A and Class B types of B-lactamase enzymes of Gram-negative bacteria. Secondary resistance against carbapenems was described in case of the following bacteria: penicilline resistant S. pneumoniae, methicilline resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Enterobacter cloaceae, less frequently Enterobacter aerogenes, Serratia mercescens, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Acinetobacter baumannii. The pharmacokinetic profile of imipenem and meropenem are very similar. Carbapenems are valuable as empirical monotherapy due to their broad spectrum of antimicrobial activity and ß lactamase stability in the treatment of severe nosocomial infections, lower respiratory tract or intraabdominal infections and febrile neutropenia. The use of imipenem in central nervous system infection is not approved due to the high incidence of seizures. ]

Lege Artis Medicinae

[Confined placental mosaicism and uniparental disomy]

BODA Anikó, PAPP Zoltán

[Chromosomal mosaicism is defined as the presence of two or more cell lines having different chromosomal complements in the same individual. In the conceptus the extent of the mosaicism depends on the timing of chromosomal mutation occurance, the cell lineage affected, and the viability of the mutation. The resultant mosaicism can be either generalized, confined placental or confined embryonic. The process of the loss or removal of one of the three chromosomes from the trisomic conception, at least from the cells that will form the proper fetus is known as trisomic zygote rescue. As the result of this phenomenon, the embryo/fetus becomes disomic, while the placental compartment remains trisomic or mosaic. After losing a chromosome, the remaining pair might originate from the same parent. The presence of two chromosomes from one parent in a disomic cell line is termed uniparental disomy. Uniparental disomy is one form of aberrant origin for disomic cells, and the term „pseudodisomy" is also used. Uniparental disomy can involve homozygosity for the chromosome, and the term ,,isodisomy" has been suggested for this phenomenon. If the homozigosity for the chromosome is not complete, the term „heterodisomy" is used. Depending on the pathologic chromosome, the clinical consequences of the confined placental mosaicism and uniparental disomy can be intrauterine and/or postnatal growth restriction, spontaneous abortion. Increased perinatal morbidity and mortality, minor congenital malformations can result from the phenomena. Confined placental mosaicism and uniparental disomy are well known in syndromatology too. The connections of mosaic trisomy 7 and Silver-Russell syndrome, mosaic trisomy 15 and Angelman syndrome, mosaic trisomy 15 and Prader-Villi syndrome are described. Due to the presence of aneuploid cells in the placenta, confined placental mosaicism may cause placental dysfunction, hydropic degeneration of the placenta or „unexplained" highly increased serum hCG level. ]

Lege Artis Medicinae

[Home management of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease]

MÜHLBACHER Szilvia, VADÁSZ Imre

[Cessation of smoking is the primary condition for the successful management of COPD. The aim of pharmacotherapy is to diminish symptoms (dyspnoe, cough and expectoration) to increase cardiorespiratory performance and to improve the quality of life. Pharmacotherapy is based upon administration of bronchodilators (anticholinergic and beta-agonist preparations as well as theo phyllin). In the case of acute exacerbation anti- biotic treatment is indicated. Effectiveness of inhalative corticosteroids is not established well yet, whereas the oral and parenteral administration of corticosteroids is limited by severe side effects. In the advanced stage of disease long term oxygen therapy can increase survival and improve the quality of life. Respiratory rehabilitation is an essential component in the management, it facilitates expectoration and corrects respiratory technique, increases muscular force and performance, improves quality of life. Active cooperation of patients is necessary for the successful management of the desease; the patient should be informed on the particulars of the disease and on the required contribution.]

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Clinical Neuroscience

[Diabetes, dementia, depression, distress]

SZATMÁRI Szabolcs, ORBÁN-KIS Károly, MIHÁLY István, LÁZÁR Alpár Sándor

[The number of people living with diabetes continues to rise. Therefore neurologists or other health care practitioners may be increasingly faced with comorbid neuropsychiatric disorders commonly presented by diabetic patients. More recently there has been an increasing research interest not only in the interactions between diabetes and the nervous system, the fine structure and functional changes of the brain, but also in the cognitive aspects of antidiabetic treatments. Patients with both types of diabetes mellitus may show signs of cognitive decline, and depression. Comorbid insomnia, anxiety, and distress may also occur. The bi-directional relationships between all these phenomena as well as their connection with diabetes can lead to further health and quality of life deterioration. Therefore it is important that all practitioners involved in the care of diabetic patients recognize the presence of comorbid neuropsychiatric disturbances early on during the healthcare process. Identifying higher risk patients and early screening could improve the prognosis of diabetes and may prevent complications.]

LAM KID

[New findings in the cortical bone biology and its role in bone fractures]

BALOGH Ádám, BHATTOA Harjit Pál

[The authors surveyed the already known factors responsible for the osteoporotic bone fragility. Then the results of using modern imaging techniques (micro-CT, high-resolution peripheral computed quantitative tomograph - HR-pQCT) and advanced computer analytic methods (finite element analysis, FEA) are presented. These data - beyond the already known fracture risk factors (age, risk of falling, bone mineral density - BMD, and fine structure damage of trabecular bone) are stressing the importance of the (micro)damage of cortical bone as a fracture risk factor, which has been still underrated. The cortical thickening and increased porosity - verified on various population samples - are increasing the risk of fractures in certain subgroups of subjects having identical BMD values, even among those, who are considered only osteopenic by the earlier classification based on BMD values. Backed with modern software batteries, the new imaging techniques are expected to enter clinical application in the near future. Pharmacologic agents with stronger cortical effect are already available and research is continuing to find new drugs to use in the management of osteoporotic patients of high fracture risk.]

Clinical Neuroscience

Additional value of tau protein measurement in the diagnosis of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease

CSEH Katalin Edina, VERES Gábor, DANICS Krisztina, SZALÁRDY Levente, NÁNÁSI Nikolett, KLIVÉNYI Péter, VÉCSEI László, ZÁDORI Dénes

Since the definite diagnosis of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) can currently only be provided by autopsy, there is a special need for fine diagnostic tools in live patients to achieve accurate diagnosis as early as possible. The aim of this study was to perform a preliminary retrospective analysis on the utility of the measurement of total Tau (tTau) and some other biomarkers from the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of patients with rapidly progressive dementia in the diagnostic work up of CJD. Beside the assessment of relevant clinical data and the findings of electroencephalography and brain magnetic resonance imaging, the presence of 14-3-3 protein and the levels of tTau were determined by Western blot technique and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay from the CSF of 19 patients diagnosed with rapidly progressive dementia between the period of 2004-2017 at the Department of Neurology, University of Szeged. This preliminary study provided 100% sensitivity for 14-3-3, and interestingly, only 40% specificity to support the clinical diagnosis of CJD. Regarding tTau, the sensitivity values were calculated to be 100% or 83%, whereas the specificity values were 71% or 86%, depending on the applied cut-off levels. The poor specificity of 14-3-3 is not in line with literature data and may be the result of the small number of patients in the cohort with non-prion disease, predominantly consisting of disorders with considerable tissue damage, whereas tTau presented good sensitivity and specificity values. The combined application of these and novel chemical biomarkers may increase both sensitivity and specificity to a desired level.

Clinical Neuroscience

[Perinatal stroke - from symptoms to follow-up]

VOJCEK Eszter, CSÉCSEI Márta, FLACH Edina, RUDAS Gábor, GRÁF Rózsa, PRINCZKEL Erzsébet

[Background and purpose - We aimed to analyze patient characteristics of term neonates with the diagnosis of stroke between 2006 and 2017 at the 3rd level Neonatal Intensive Care Unit of the Szent János Hospital. Method - We conducted a retrospective and prospective analysis including 18 newborns with stroke. Presentation, imaging methods, etiology and clinical context were discussed. All patients had a follow-up at 2 years of age or later. Subject of the study - In the past 10 years 17 term born and one premature neonate born at 36 weeks of age were diagnosed with stroke in our unit. All patients were born at good condition generally with high Apgar scores (9±1). Cesarean section was performed in 4 cases. Results - With an estimated incidence of one in 1600-4000 births, the incidence of perinatal stroke in our unit was found to be the same as mentioned in the international databeses. Regarding imaging method, cranial ultrasound scan do not visualise arterial ischaemic stroke therefore head MRI is recommended. Neurological symptoms of the patients presented in the first two days of life. Etiology included thrombophilia (4/18), infection (4/18), vascular malformation (2/18), moderate asphyxia (2/18) and pre-eclampsia (2/18). Middle cerebral artery was involved in 50% while the anterior cerebral artery was affected in 33%. The stroke occured in the left hemisphaerium in 44%, in the right side in 39% and was bilateral in 17%. In two cases the stroke was diagnosed in utero. Early childhood developmental support resulted in average or above average gross and fine motor development and cognitive outcome. Conclusion - Presenting neurological symptoms tipically occur in the first few days after birth when perinatal stroke need to be considered among the broad spectrum of neonatal illnesses. Normal developmental outcome can be achieved even in cases of extensive brain damage with early childhood developmental support. Severely impaired development was observed in the cases of in utero stroke. Inherited prothrombotic disorders may have implications for subsequent pregnancies of the mother. ]

Lege Artis Medicinae

[Genetic background of thyroid cancers]

HALÁSZLAKI Csaba, LAKATOS Péter, KÓSA P. János, BALLA Bernadett, JÁRAY Balázs, TAKÁCS István

[Molecular genetics has become an indispensable diagnostic tool in a number of diseases. The most frequent thyroid tumours are associated with genetic alterations that might be used for diagnostic purpose in the future. Somatic mutations and rearrangements in BRAF, RAS family RET/PTC and PAX8/PPAR-gamma genes may occur in papillary and follicular thyroid carcinomas. Other mutations of the RET gene can be found in medullary carcinomas (in sporadic as well as hereditary types), whereas mutations of the genes TP53, RAS, and BRAF are associated with poorly differentiated and anaplastic carcinomas. At present, the most reliable diagnostic tool for the differential diagnosis of thyroid nodules is fine-needle aspiration cytology. However, the existing malignancy cannot be unequivocally proven in up to 10-40% of all samples. On the basis of previous results, genetic examination of fine needle aspiration samples from thyroid nodules can contribute to a more precise diagnosis and the timely removal of potentially malignant nodules.]