Lege Artis Medicinae

[Empathy]

VAS József Pál

DECEMBER 20, 2005

Lege Artis Medicinae - 2005;15(12)

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[SEROTYPE AND ANTIBIOTIC SENSITIVITY DETERMINATION OF SELECTED ISOLATES OF INVASIVE STREPTOCOCCUS PNEUMONIAE STRAINS]

PÁSZTOR Mónika

[INTRODUCTION - Streptococcus pneumoniae (S. pneumoniae) is a very important pathogene of community acquired invasive infections. The aim the study was to collect data on the serotype distribution of invasive S. pneumoniae strains in Hungary and their resistance. In the light of the results it can be determined how effective the currently available polysaccharide vaccine is against the infections caused by invasive S. pneumoniae strains. MATERIALS AND METHODS - The seroprevalence and antibiotic sensitivity of 44 randomly selected isolates of Streptococcus pneumoniae isolated from sterile sites of human body were analysed over a 4 year period (2000-2003). Samples were randomly analysed by the Quellung method. Detection of sensitivity of S. pneumoniae to penicillin and erythromycin were carried out by disc diffusions and E-test method in the microbiological laboratory of the St. Laszlo Hospital. RESULTS - The invasive isolates belong to 22 different serotypes. The prevalence of penicillin and erythromycin sensitivity was 79,5%, and 68% respectively. CONCLUSION - The 23 valent polysaccharide vaccine could provide coverage of 82% of invasive pneumococcal diseases caused by strains analysed in this study.]

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[Mirror neurons and interpersonality in the paradigm of embodied mind]

HORVÁTH Lajos, SZABÓ Attila

[In this paper, our aim is to scrutinise the psychology and phenomenology of interpersonal relationships from an interdisciplinary viewpoint. This multi-perspectival examination has a key concept: we critically discuss the interdisciplinary dialogues and philosophical appraisals regarding the issue of mirror neurons. Empathy and resonance phenomena have philosophical, psychological, and biomedical importance. Our paper, by applying certain philosophical and empirical results of the overarching paradigm of embodiment, attempts to shed light on several semantic problems, which could come up with respect to the function of mirror-neurons. In conclusion, we would like to attempt to utilise the results of contemporary phenomenology in order to clear some semantic problems, considering the features of mirroring and resonant behaviour.]

Lege Artis Medicinae

[Classical methods in modern approach. Training for the recognition of emotions using bibliotherapy-techniques]

SZABÓ József, SIPOS Mária

[BACKGROUND - Nowadays it is an understood fact, that theory of mind has a great psychological significance. Deficits of theory of mind skills are observed in schizophrenia such as depression, dementia, autism and some personality disorders as well. Conceptions of theory of mind and emotion recognition ability have been coming in front at the expanse of the older empathy also in the present-day research in connection with helper connections and their effects. It is probably due to popular approach of cognitive neuroscience exact methods. METHODS - We intended to demonstrate, that the ability of emotion recognition can be developed, or partially restored, even in case of patients suffering from schizophrenia. We compiled an 8-seat training. Our method was a bibliotherapy training, each of chosen novels expressed one of basic emotions (by Ekman). After a common reading we projected validated portraits expressing also those emotions. Participants had to choose reflecting the emotional state of the characters photos. Then they shared stories from their own lives experiencing similar emotions. We measured the effectiveness of our method by the Reading the Mind in the Eyes measured (RMET) test. RESULTS - Comparing data before and after the training in t-test we detected significant difference (p=0.000608 <0.05). Verifying that the observed changes are not only the common effects of the other types of treatment, the same tests were performed on a similar in-patient treated control group. There was no significant difference between the RMET first time and two weeks later values of the control group (p=0.467). The rate of changes in the test and control group (RMET) was compared in a paired-sample t-test, and we also found a significant difference: p=0.000786 <0.005. CONCLUSIONS - The deficit of theory of mind in schizophrenia can be reduced, which indirectly can improve our patients' communication and adaptation skills, or worse, their deterioration can be reduced.]

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[What worries Hungarian men? - Characteristics of masculine gender role stress]

SUSÁNSZKY Anna, SUSÁNSZKY Éva, KOPP Mária

[INTRODUCTION - The aim of this study was to establish the characteristics of stress associated with male gender role and its relationship to health and to risk behaviours among Hungarian men. SUBJECTS AND METHODS - The present analysis is based on data of the Hungarostudy 2006 survey. Forty-one percent of the participants were men. Eighty nine percent of the male respondents completed the Eisler-Skidmore Masculine Gender Role Stress Scale; data of 1764 persons were analyzed. RESULTS - Anxiety about sexual performance, breadwinner role, and appearance (i.e. tradition factor) causes a much greater burden of stress than anxiety about changing gender relationships (i.e. modernization factor). With the increase of age, stress caused by traditional role expectations significantly decreases; tensions caused by women’s dominance and by situations which demand emotional response and empathy are the highest among middle aged men. Traditional gender role stress is more prevalent among pensioners than among economically active men; stress caused by the modernization of masculine gender role particularly afflicts unemployed men. Married men are to the least extent troubled by female dominance and difficulties in expressing emotions. Of the two dimensions analyzed here (tradition and modernization) only the values on the tradition factor were related to health status, psychological well-being, and frequency of smoking. CONCLUSIONS - Modernization of gender roles represents only a small - if any - stressor in the life of Hungarian men; on the other hand, unsuccessful adaptation to traditional role expectations highly increases the burden of stress and is closely related to smoking.]

Journal of Nursing Theory and Practice

[Nursing Aspects of Communication with Conscious Patients Receiving Mechanical Ventilation]

TÖREKI Noémi, SMUDLA Anikó, GONDOS Tibor

[Aim of the study: The authors aimed to represent the verbal and non-verbal communication of intensive care unit nurses and reveal the difficulties they face when communicating with conscious patients receiving mechanical ventilation. Sample and methods: The study was conducted with the participation of nurses working in three intensive care units of Semmelweis University, with the use of a questionnaire that was filled in by 59 nurses. Results: There was a significant difference in the quality of communication between the day shift and the night shift (p<0.001). The workload of nurses has an impact on the effectiveness of their communication. The number of patients in the day shift (p=0.016) is also crucial and having a part-time job is determinant in the night shift (p=0,026). In both shifts, burnout of nurses had considerable effect on their communication with conscious patients who receive mechanical ventilation (day shift p=0.007; night shift=0.030), while their empathy did not. Conclusions: The environmental factors influenced the effectiveness of communication. Establishing contact with patients receiving mechanical ventilation can be improved by appropriate education of nurses, thus, the authors put forward a proposal for trainings on the subjects of communication and counselling.]

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[Thinking about the nursing competences]

ADORJÁNNÉ ZDENKÓ Erzsébet

[Nursing is a complex profession consisting of several vocational skills such as empathy, theoretical, clinical, ethical, and communication skills. Beside these, technical knowledge is also essential for a nurse. The conventional methods of knowledge transfer are less and less able to meet the changed requests of the labor market. As a result of that nurse education has adapted to these changes, therefore the aim of the recent education system is to bring the acquisition of skills and competencies into prominence by using simulations as a helpful teaching strategy. Although for nurses working bedside at present improving their adequate technical skills still needs to be solved. The author wants to draw attention to the importance of maintaining and improving the acquired nursing competences, and that unregulated nursing competences are also important to be revised.]