Lege Artis Medicinae

[CURRENT PRACTICE AND PROBLEMS IN RESUSCITATION]

DIÓSZEGHY Csaba

MAY 20, 2005

Lege Artis Medicinae - 2005;15(05)

[Cardiopulmonary resuscitation is the progressive management of sudden cardiac arrest with the goal of restoring spontaneous circulation and preserve vital organ functions. Sudden cardiac death occuring out of hospital is still one of the major causes of death among otherwise healthy and young population however, approppriate management - certainly including resuscitation as the first step - might provide a reasonably good quality of life. Long term outcome of resuscitation is mainly determined by the links of the Chain of Survival, eg. early access, early CPR, early defibrillation and early advanced care. The aim of this review is to present the upto- date concepts for the best management of these survival links.]

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HORVÁTH Attila

Lege Artis Medicinae

[THE ROLE OF REGISTRY ANALYSIS IN THE FORMING OF THERAPEUTIC GUIDELINES IN RENAL TRANSPLANTATION]

PERNER Ferenc, HERCZEG Balázs, SZENOHRADSZKY Pál, ASZTALOS László, KALMÁR-NAGY Károly, JÁRAY Jenő

[The authors assess the two main outcomes of the immunosuppressive therapy after renal transplantation: graft and patient survival. According to their view, evidence from randomised clinical trials results can be well complemented by the several unique transplant registries and outcome research based upon these databases. The comparison of evidence from these two sources addresses the question of achievable outcome under ideal (controlled) versus real life conditions. Based on a systematic review of the relevant clinical trials and registries it can be stated, that in the case of some immunosuppressants (mycophenolate mofetil vs azathioprine, microemulsified cyclosporin vs cyclosporin and tacrolimus vs cyclosporin) the improvement in the intermediate outcome can lead to improved graft and patient survival, while in the case of other drugs no significant difference in hard endpoints were detected (tacrolimus vs microemulsified cyclosporin). Evidence on graft and patient survival differences could not be derived from traditional randomised clinical trials, only from transplant registries. For the sake of improved evidence based therapeutic guidelines in renal transplantation, authors call for further development of the Hungarian transplant registry.]

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SZEGECZKY Dezső

Lege Artis Medicinae

[SUBSTANCE ABUSE AND CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM]

VÁLYI Péter

[Substance abuse is an immense problem in Hungary and around the world. Psychological effects of this condition are widely known for abusers and health care workers. Cardiovascular effects of illicit substances are much less well known and can develop as very severe diseases (myocardial infarction, extremely high blood pressure, intracerebral haemorrhage, sudden death etc.) and occur particularly in young people. The treatment of cardiovascular complications of substance abuse may differ from that accepted in non-abusers and some drugs (for example: β-blockers) may be contraindicated. In this review, the effects of substance abuse on the cardiovascular system are discussed, including effects of most commonly abused substances: cocaine, amphetamines, heroin, LSD, marijuana, inhalative substances. In this review the cardiovascular effects of sedato-hypnotics and most widely used substances (alcohol, nicotine, caffeine) are not adressed, since they are well known.]

Lege Artis Medicinae

[ISOTOPE BASED CARDIAC DIAGNOSTICS - POSSIBILITIES IN NUCLEAR CARDIOLOGY]

BALOGH Ildikó

[Methods of nuclear cardiology have been applied for several decades and there is continuous development in this area. The most commonly used modality is the myocardial perfusion scintigraphy (MPS). During stress MPS, the presence and the severity of ischaemic heart disease (IHD) can be detected. Resting MPS can show a freshly developing acut myocardial infarction (AMI) immediately, but new and old infarcted myocardial areas can not be distinguished by this method. Using SPECT (single photon emission tomography) examination and quantitative analysis can improve the accuracy of MPS. With gated SPECT we can analyse both the perfusion and the function of left ventricle. To examine the function of left and right ventricle the “gold standard” non-invasive method is MUGA (multiple gated acquisition) of blood pool scintigraphy. After only a few hours of the onset of AMI we can detect it with the socalled infarct avid scintigraphy using radiopharmaceuticals which accumulate in affected area. Following an AMI it is essential to differentiate among high and low risk patients for revascularisation treatment, therefore distinguishing the viable (hibernating) and non-viable (necrotic) myocardium with imaging techniques is an important task. Preserved metabolism as the sign of viable myocardium can be detected both by SPECT (most accurately by thallium rest-redistribution scintigraphy) and PET (detecting glucose metabolism by F-18-FDG). Adrenerg receptor scintigraphy can show the sympathetic innervation: in the case of a transplanted heart it can detect the reinnervation and in the case of malignant ventricular tachyarrhythmias the risks and the severity of the illness.]

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Cognitive dysfunction (CD) is a common non-motor symptom of Parkinson’s disease (PD). Alexithy­mia is a still poorly understood neuropsychiatric feature of PD. Cognitive impairment (especially visuospatial dysfunction and executive dysfunction) and alexithymia share com­mon pathology of neuroanatomical structures. We hypo­thesized that there must be a correlation between CD and alexithymia levels considering this relationship of neuroanatomy. Objective – The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between alexithymia and neurocognitive function in patients with PD. Thirty-five patients with PD were included in this study. The Toronto Alexithymia Scale–20 (TAS-20), Geriatric Depression Inventory (GDI) and a detailed neuropsychological evaluation were performed. Higher TAS-20 scores were negatively correlated with Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS) similarities test score (r =-0.71, p value 0.02), clock drawing test (CDT) scores (r=-0.72, p=0.02) and verbal fluency (VF) (r=-0.77, p<0.01). Difficulty identifying feelings subscale score was negatively correlated with CDT scores (r=-0.74, p=0.02), VF scores (r=-0.66, p=0.04), visual memory immediate recall (r=-0.74, p=0.01). VF scores were also correlated with difficulty describing feelings (DDF) scores (r=-0.66, p=0.04). There was a reverse relationship bet­ween WAIS similarities and DDF scores (r=-0.70, p=0.02), and externally oriented-thinking (r=-0.77,p<0.01). Executive function Z score was correlated with the mean TAS-20 score (r=-62, p=0.03) and DDF subscale score (r=-0.70, p=0.01) Alexithymia was found to be associated with poorer performance on visuospatial and executive function test results. We also found that alexithymia was significantly correlated with depressive symptoms. Presence of alexithymia should therefore warn the clinicians for co-existing CD.

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Although vertigo is one of the most common complaints, intracranial malignant tumors rarely cause sudden asymmetry between the tone of the vestibular peripheries masquerading as a peripheral-like disorder. Here we report a case of simultaneous temporal bone infiltrating macro-metastasis and disseminated multi-organ micro-metastases presenting as acute unilateral vestibular syndrome, due to the reawakening of a primary gastric signet ring cell carcinoma. Purpose – Our objective was to identify those pathophysiological steps that may explain the complex process of tumor reawakening, dissemination. The possible causes of vestibular asymmetry were also traced. A 56-year-old male patient’s interdisciplinary medical data had been retrospectively analyzed. Original clinical and pathological results have been collected and thoroughly reevaluated, then new histological staining and immunohistochemistry methods have been added to the diagnostic pool. During the autopsy the cerebrum and cerebellum was edematous. The apex of the left petrous bone was infiltrated and destructed by a tumor mass of 2x2 cm in size. Histological reexamination of the original gastric resection specimen slides revealed focal submucosal tumorous infiltration with a vascular invasion. By immunohistochemistry mainly single infiltrating tumor cells were observed with Cytokeratin 7 and Vimentin positivity and partial loss of E-cadherin staining. The subsequent histological examination of necropsy tissue specimens confirmed the disseminated, multi-organ microscopic tumorous invasion. Discussion – It has been recently reported that the expression of Vimentin and the loss of E-cadherin is significantly associated with advanced stage, lymph node metastasis, vascular and neural invasion and undifferentiated type with p<0.05 significance. As our patient was middle aged and had no immune-deficiency, the promoting factor of the reawakening of the primary GC malignant disease after a 9-year-long period of dormancy remained undiscovered. The organ-specific tropism explained by the “seed and soil” theory was unexpected, due to rare occurrence of gastric cancer to metastasize in the meninges given that only a minority of these cells would be capable of crossing the blood brain barrier. Patients with past malignancies and new onset of neurological symptoms should alert the physician to central nervous system involvement, and the appropriate, targeted diagnostic and therapeutic work-up should be established immediately. Targeted staining with specific antibodies is recommended. Recent studies on cell lines indicate that metformin strongly inhibits epithelial-mesenchymal transition of gastric cancer cells. Therefore, further studies need to be performed on cases positive for epithelial-mesenchymal transition.

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[This consensus document is intended to provide guidance for the effective and efficient treatment of asymptomatic individuals with high uric acid levels and gout patients.]

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