Lege Artis Medicinae

[3rd Congress of the Hungarian Society of Personalized Medicine]


DECEMBER 18, 2012

Lege Artis Medicinae - 2012;22(12)



Further articles in this publication

Lege Artis Medicinae

[„Three dimensions in diabetes - one cooperation, two pharmaceutical companies, three compounds” - EASD, Berlin, 1st October 2012.]


Lege Artis Medicinae

[Some thoughts at the 50th anniversary of my medical graduation]

BOGA Bálint

Lege Artis Medicinae

[The importance of balneotherapy in osteology]


[The authors overview the role of hydroand balneotherapy in osteology. As Hungary is very rich in thermal-mineral water, this kind of therapy has a great importance in the rehabilitation of locomotor diseases. In the past years, an increasing number of data have been published about the immunomodulatory, metabolic and analgesic role of hydro- and balneotherapy. Although balneotherapy’s mechanism of action has not been clarified yet, a number of reviews and metaanalyses have found that hydro- and balneotherapy have a beneficial effect on locomotor diseases. The majority of these articles - many of them written by Hungarian authors - discusses the treatment of arthrosis. Furthermore, an increasing amount of data is available on calcium supplementation with mineral water. In this paper, we discuss the role of hydro- and balneotherapy in the therapy of osteological diseases, on the basis of the available evidence.]

Lege Artis Medicinae

[Invictus – The Road to Reconciliation ]


Lege Artis Medicinae

[Cost minimization analysis of basal insulin analogues in the treatment of type 2 diabetes]

MERÉSZ Gergő, TABÁK Gy. Ádám, KALÓ Zoltán

[INTRODUCTION - Basal insulin analogues are essential drugs for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Basal insulin analogues have been shown to reduce the frequency of hypoglycaemia versus NPH insulin, and thus may be beneficial in the treatment of type 2 diabetes. Here we present a cost-minimisation analysis of basal insulin analogues, comparing insulin glargine and insulin detemir available in Hungary. METHODS - A literature review was conducted to identify randomized, controlled clinical trials with a duration of 12 weeks or more in which a direct comparison of insulin glargine and insulin detemir was made in patients with type 2 diabetes. In a meta-analysis of the eligible trials, the following endpoints were investigated: metabolic status, body weight, frequency of hypoglycaemia, insulin doses administered and the number of insulin injections required. If a high heterogeneity (I2>75%) was found, meta-regression was performed to identify the underlying reasons. The funder’s perspective was applied in the cost-minimization analysis by taking into account the cost of the drug and of medical devices necessary for its administration, based on the daily number of insulin injections. RESULTS - No further studies were found in addition to those included in a metaanalysis published by The Cochrane Library. On the basis of three eligible studies, insulin detemir was injected more frequently compared with glargine (weighted mean difference: 0.42 95% CI 0.14-0.69 injections/day). High heterogeneity was present in case of two endpoints: the incidence of overall hypoglycaemia per patient-year (I2=83%), and daily basal insulin dose in units per body weight (I2=94%). The reason for the high heterogeneity in hypoglycaemia rates was not identified by meta-regression; however, the difference in insulin doses per body weight was negatively associated with body weight (-0.027 IU/kg per 1 kg, 95%CI: -0.051; -0.004). On the basis of the present meta-analysis and meta-regression, our calculations suggest that treating an average weight (90 kg) patient with type 2 diabetes with insulin glargine would result in an annual cost reduction of 93 452 HUF compared with insulin detemir by employing gross public drug prices. CONCLUSION - On the basis of the available clinical evidence, insulin glargine might be a cost-saving alternative of insulin detemir in an average-weight patient with type 2 diabetes. In an era of scarce resources, the role of therapeutic alternatives offering cost savings with the same efficacy become more important. The generalisability of our conclusions might be influenced by potential differences in the manufacturers’ claw-back rate of detemir vs glargine insulin.]

All articles in the issue

Related contents

Clinical Neuroscience

[Advanced Parkinson’s disease characteristics in clinical practice: Results from the OBSERVE-PD study and sub-analysis of the Hungarian data]

TAKÁTS Annamária, ASCHERMANN Zsuzsanna, VÉCSEI László, KLIVÉNYI Péter, DÉZSI Lívia, ZÁDORI Dénes, VALIKOVICS Attila, VARANNAI Lajos, ONUK Koray, KINCZEL Beatrix, KOVÁCS Norbert

[The majority of patients with advanced Parkinson’s disease are treated at specialized movement disorder centers. Currently, there is no clear consensus on how to define the stages of Parkinson’s disease; the proportion of Parkinson’s patients with advanced Parkinson’s disease, the referral process, and the clinical features used to characterize advanced Parkinson’s disease are not well delineated. The primary objective of this observational study was to evaluate the proportion of Parkinson’s patients identified as advanced patients according to physician’s judgment in all participating movement disorder centers across the study. Here we evaluate the Hungarian subset of the participating patients. The study was conducted in a cross-sectional, non-interventional, multi-country, multi-center format in 18 countries. Data were collected during a single patient visit. Current Parkinson’s disease status was assessed with Unified Parkinson’s Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS) parts II, III, IV, and V (modified Hoehn and Yahr staging). Non-motor symptoms were assessed using the PD Non-motor Symptoms Scale (NMSS); quality of life was assessed with the PD 8-item Quality-of-Life Questionnaire (PDQ-8). Parkinson’s disease was classified as advanced versus non-advanced based on physician assessment and on questions developed by the Delphi method. Overall, 2627 patients with Parkinson’s disease from 126 sites were documented. In Hungary, 100 patients with Parkinson’s disease were documented in four movement disorder centers, and, according to the physician assessment, 50% of these patients had advanced Parkinson’s disease. Their mean scores showed significantly higher impairment in those with, versus without advanced Parkinson’s disease: UPDRS II (14.1 vs. 9.2), UPDRS IV Q32 (1.1 vs. 0.0) and Q39 (1.1 vs. 0.5), UPDRS V (2.8 vs. 2.0) and PDQ-8 (29.1 vs. 18.9). Physicians in Hungarian movement disorder centers assessed that half of the Parkinson’s patients had advanced disease, with worse motor and non-motor symptom severity and worse QoL than those without advanced Parkinson’s disease. Despite being classified as eligible for invasive/device-aided treatment, that treatment had not been initiated in 25% of these patients.]

Clinical Neuroscience

Evaluation of anxiety, depression and marital relationships in patients with migraine


Aim - The aim of this study was to evaluate the frequency and characteristics of attacks in patients with migraine, to determine the effects of anxiety or depressive symptoms, and to evaluate the marital relationships of patients with migraine. Method - Thirty patients who were admitted to the neurology outpatient clinic of our hospital between July 2018 and October 2018 and were diagnosed with migraine according to the 2013 International Headache Society (IHS) diagnostic criteria were included in this cross-sectional study. Age, sex, headache frequency and severity, depressive traits, marital satisfaction and anxiety status were examined. We used the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), Maudsley Marital Questionnaire (MMQ) and Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) for measuring relevant parameters. Results - The mean severity of migraine pain according to VAS scale was 6.93 ± 1.41 and the mean number of migraine attacks was 4.50 ± 4.24. The mean BDI score of the patients was 12.66 ± 8.98, the mean MMQ-M score was 19.80 ± 12.52, the mean MMQ-S score was 13.20 ± 9.53, the mean STAI-state score was 39.93 ± 10.87 and the mean STAI-trait score was 45.73 ± 8.96. No significant correlation was found between age, number of migraine attacks, migraine duration, migraine headache intensity, and BDI, STAI and MMQ scores (p>0.05). But there was a positive correlation between MMQ-S and scores obtained from the BDI and STAI-state scales (p<0.05). Conclusion - In this study more than half of the migraine patients had mild, moderate or severe depression. A positive correlation was found between sexual dissatisfaction and scale scores of depression and anxiety.

Clinical Oncology

[Complications of infusion treatment with emphasis on extravasation of cytostatics]

HARISI Revekka

[The extravasation of cytostatics is the most signifi cant complication of infusion therapy in cancer treatment. Extravasation refers to the inadvertent infi ltration of cytostatic drugs into subcutaneous or subdermal tissues surrounding the intravenous or intraarterial administration site. According to literature data incidence estimates between 0,01-7%. Extravasated drugs are classifi ed according to their potential for causing damage as vesicant, irritant and nonvesicant. Knowledge of risk factors, the patientrelated and treatment-related ones is important to minimize the occurrence of extravasation. In order to reduce the risk of extravasation, the staff involved in the tumor infusion therapy must be specially trained to implement several preventive and therapeutical protocols. In 2012, ESMO-EONS has put together a new comprehensive treatment protocol on the topic of cytostatics extravasation. Protocol recommended that every oncological department, who administers chemotherapy have to have extravasation trained team and a standby extravasation kit. According to the new ESMO-EONS guideline subcutaneous corticoids are not recommended, anymore. In case of mechloretamine extravasation the recommendation is immediate subcutaneous injection of sodium thiosulfate. After extravasation of anthracyclines, mitomycin C and platin salts the best treatment opportunity is subcutan dimethyl sulfoxide administration. In case of anthracyclines’ extravasation intravenous dexrazoxane treatment is also effective. Hyaluronidase, injected into or under the skin, facilitates absorption of extravasated drugs because of increases connective tissue permeability, promotes the spreading and reduces the local concentration of the extravasated citostatic agents. Hyaluronidase might be effi cacious in preventing skin necrosis by extravasation due to vinca alkaloids. The treatment of unresolved tissue necrosis or pain lasting more than 10 days is surgical debridement. Because of the medical and juristic importance of the extravasation event, it is necessary to establish uniform guidelines for treatment of extravasation, in all Hungarian Oncological Centers.]

Clinical Neuroscience

[Decisional collisions between evidence and experience based medicine in care of people with epilepsy]


[Background – Based on the literature and his long-term clinical practice the author stresses the main collisions of evidence and experience based medicine in the care of people with epilepsy. Purpose – To see, what are the professional decisions of high responsibility in the epilepsy-care, in whose the relevant clinical research is still lacking or does not give a satisfactory basis. Methods – Following the structure of the Hungarian Guideline the author points the critical situations and decisions. He explains also the causes of the dilemmas: the lack or uncertainty of evidences or the difficulty of scientific investigation of the situation. Results – There are some priorities of experience based medicine in the following areas: definition of epilepsy, classification of seizures, etiology – including genetic background –, role of precipitating and provoking factors. These are able to influence the complex diagnosis. In the pharmacotherapy the choice of the first drug and the optimal algorithm as well as the tasks during the care are also depends on personal experiences sometimes contradictory to the official recommendations. Same can occur in the choice of the non-pharmacological treatments and rehabilitation. Discussion and conclusion – Personal professional experiences (and interests of patients) must be obligatory accessories of evidence based attitude, but for achieving the optimal results, in some situations they replace the official recommendations. Therefore it is very important that the problematic patients do meet experts having necessary experiences and also professional responsibility to help in these decisions. ]

Clinical Neuroscience

A case with reversible neurotoxicity induced by metronidazole

EREN Fulya, ALDAN Ali Mehmet, DOGAN Burcu Vasfiye, GUL Gunay, SELCUK Hatem Hakan, SOYSAL Aysun

Background - Metronidazole is a synthetic antibiotic, which has been commonly used for protozoal and anaerobic infections. It rarely causes dose - and duration - unrelated reversible neurotoxicity. It can induce hyperintense T2/FLAIR MRI lesions in several areas of the brain. Although the clinical status is catastrophic, it is completely reversible after discontinuation of the medicine. Case report - 36-year-old female patient who had recent brain abscess history was under treatment of metronidazole for 40 days. She admitted to Emergency Department with newly onset myalgia, nausea, vomiting, blurred vision and cerebellar signs. She had nystagmus in all directions of gaze, ataxia and incompetence in tandem walk. Bilateral hyperintense lesions in splenium of corpus callosum, mesencephalon and dentate nuclei were detected in T2/FLAIR MRI. Although lumbar puncture analysis was normal, her lesions were thought to be related to activation of the brain abscess and metronidazole was started to be given by intravenous way instead of oral. As lesions got bigger and clinical status got worse, metronidazole was stopped. After discontinuation of metronidazole, we detected a dramatic improvement in patient’s clinical status and MRI lesions reduced. Conclusion - Although metronidazole induced neurotoxicity is a very rare complication of the treatment, clinicians should be aware of this entity because its adverse effects are completely reversible after discontinuation of the treatment.