[The role of bone turnover markers in the diagnosis and therapy of osteoporosis]


MARCH 30, 2013

LAM KID - 2013;3(01)

[Osteoporosis is a metabolic bone diseasecharacterised by decreased bone mass andimpaired bone turnover, which leads to anincreased risk of fractures and significantmorbidity and mortality. Its social and pub-lic health impact and the importance of itsearly and accurate diagnosis are indis-putable. The aim of timely and efficienttherapy is to improve bone quality as wellas to prevent the dreaded complications ofbone fractures. In clinical practice, labora-tory diagnosis of biochemical bone mark-ers are particularly important for therapeu-tic monitoring. In this article, reviewing lit-erature data, we discuss bone-specificmarkers from the clinician’s perspective,and highlight their importance in everydayclinical practice. ]



Further articles in this publication


[A dogma of histochemistry that seems to be refuted - histological detectability of urate crystals]

BÉLY Miklós, KRUTSAY Miklós

[In medical practice there are a number of “truths etched in stone” that are passed on from textbook to textbook and learned by generations before they become obsolete. This short study aims to eliminate a misbelief from the diagnosis of gout that is related to the histological detectability of urate deposits. According to the generally accepted thesis, urate crystals obtained from patients with gout are dissolved in formalin solution, therefore, tissue samples should be fixated in alcohol. The authors have found that urate crystals can be detected on conventionally mounted, native (unstained) sections, despite formalin fixation, whereas the great majority of urate crystals are dissolved during haematoxylin-eosin staining. Therefore, for the detection of urate crystals the tissue samples should be examined on native, unstained sections.]


[On the culture of wine]



[Osseal and extraosseal effects of vitamin D]

GAÁL János

[The author reviews the literature on the osseal and extraosseal effects of vitamin D, discussing the role of vitamin D sufficiency in the maintenance of normal bone structure and bone mass, in fracture prevention and in the efficacy on antiporotic treatment. The effects of vitamin D on hemopoiesis, tumours, muscles, articular cartilage, lungs, cardiovascular system, central nervous system, skin and certain metabolic disorders are also discussed. The paper particularly emphasises and describes on a cellular level the immune-modulating effect of vitamin D and its influence on autoimmune disorders.]


[Impact of denosumab on the peripheral skeleton of postmenopausal women with osteoporosis: bone density, mass, and strength of the radius, and wrist fracture]

BALLA Bernadett


[Could cheese be the missing piece in the French paradox puzzle?]

BALLA Bernadett

All articles in the issue

Related contents


[„HOPE for people with fracture”: Results of the HOPE (Hungarian Osteoporosis Project for Elderly) study]


[We conducted a multicentre, prospective, single cross-sectional, 12-month, open-label study for the assessment of treatment satisfaction using TSQM (Treatment Satisfaction Questionnaire for Medication) for zoledronic acid therapy used in patients with osteoporosis, who suffered minor traumatic fractures. PATIENTS AND METHODS - In total 1736 patients from 94 centers completed the study and filled in the TSQM questionnaire at both visit 1 and visit 2. TSQM is suitable for measuring the patient’s satisfaction with a treatment, by evaluating side-effects, efficacy and convenience of the treatment and the patient’s overall satisfaction rated on a scale of 0 to 100. RESULTS - Patients included in the study previously received a mean of 1.58 other therapies for osteoporosis and their case history included a mean of 1.24 fractures. This real-life study demonstrated that even one year of zoledronate treatment significantly (p<0.0001) improved the satisfaction of patients regarding efficacy (a mean change from a score of 56.15 to 70.89) as well as the occurrence of side-effects on a TSQM score. Regarding the convenience of treatment, the mean score increased from 62.96 to 79.34 (p<0.0001), whereas the overall treatment satisfaction changed from 59.3 to 75.48 by visit 2 (p<0.0001). CONCLUSIONS - Our study demonstrated beneficial TSQM results associated with zoledronic acid treatment, which is a basic requirement for appropriate adherence as well. ]


[Bone mineral density and diabetes mellitus - First results]


[INTRODUCTION - Data on bone mineral density (BMD) in diabetes mellitus are contradictory in the literature. Early studies described a decreased bone mineral density in type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM), but recent studies report no osteopenia in T1DM.The BMD may depend on the quality of treatment for diabetes mellitus and on the presence of chronic complications. In type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) the BMD is not decreased, occasionally it can even be increased. PATIENTS AND METHODS - Bone mineral density was measured in 122 regularly controlled diabetic patients (T1DM: n=73, mean age: 43.6±11.1 years,T2DM: n=49, mean age: 61.8±9.8 years) by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry at the lumbar spine and at the femur. Results were compared to those of 40 metabolically healthy control persons with a mean age of 47.5±11.9 years.The patients’ carbohydrate metabolism was assessed by the average HbA1c level of the last three years.These values were 7.9±1.4 % in T1DM, and 7.5±1.7 % in T2DM. BMDs were classified based on the T-score and Z-score using the WHO criteria. RESULTS - There was no significant difference in T1DM or in T2DM compared to the reference group in the prevalence of either osteoporosis or of osteoporosis and osteopenia combined. CONCLUSION - BMD was not found to be decreased in patients with well-controlled metabolism compared to healthy controls.]

LAM Extra for General Practicioners


SOMOGYI Péter, GAÁL János, SPEER Gábor

[The significance of osteoporosis is well known, however, the number of patients receiving treatment is only a small fraction of ideal. Besides, the fact that the population is uninformed, the difficulties of making an appointment with a specialist and the unsatisfactory communication of the doctor all play a part in the fact that a high proportion of patients receiving mediation give up treatment prematurely. The Inter - na tional Osteoporosis Foundation supports the establishment of public patient clubs with regular training courses and grants and by doing so it also acknowledges their importance in the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis. The publication, based on the questionnaire filled in by the members of the first Hungarian patient club, the Hungarian Society of Osteopo - rosis Patients in district 3rd, introduces the Hungarian results and points out how important patient clubs are in increasing the success of treatment and it also draws attention to the necessity of establishing further patient clubs in the future.]


[Adherence of Hungarian postmenopausal women with osteoporosis]

LAKATOS Péter, TÓTH Emese, LANG Zsolt, NAGY Bence, SZEKERES László, TAKÁCS István

[INTRODUCTION - Osteoporosis is defined as a loss of bone tissue and bone mass that leads to a compromised trength and quality of bones and thus to an increased risk of fractures. In many women, menopausal hormonal changes are associated with an increased bone loss. This population has postmenopausal osteoporosis. The essence of osteporosis treatment is the adequate calcium and vitamin D supplementation, which, if needed, might be combined with drug therapy to inhibit the process of bone loss. METHODS - We assessed the adherence to therapy of Hungarian patients and its effect on the risk of bone fractures, using data recorded by the National Health Insurance Fund Administration between 2004 and 2010 (n=223068, mean age: 69.9 years). We performed a statistical analyses of the available data. Medication possession ratio (MPR) for each treatment and the ratio of patients receiving continuous treatment in the study period (for 12, 18 and 24 months) were estimated. Medication persistence was investigated using Kaplan-Meier survival analysis. A multivariate Cox proportional hazard model was used to determine the factors influencing the risk of fracture. RESULTS, CONCLUSION - The results of our study show that medication adherence to treatment is low among Hungarian patients [mean MPR: 57.9%; 95% CI (57.7%- 58.0%) and persistence rate: 32.4%; 95% CI (32.2%-32.6%) in the first year]. These parameters are substantially influenced by the administration route and the frequency of treatments [mean MPR ranged 41.5%- 100% and persistence rates ranged 18.8%- 100% in the first year, differences between subgroups were significant (p<0,05)]. Our compliance as well as persistance studies showed that parenteral administration had more beneficial effects. Confirming our preliminary hypotheses, the improvement of patient compliance significantly reduced fracture risk (good compliance was defined as MPR>80%, which was associated with RR: 0.57, p<0.05 for fracture risk). Further improvement might be achieved by parenteral administration [RR for fracture risk 0.60 compared with non-compliant patients and 0.44 compared with compliant subgroups treated with oral and parenteral medications (p<0.05)].]


[Efficiency of osteoporosis treatment in Hungary - An analysis of the Hungarian National Insurance Company’s data]

LAKATOS Péter, TÓTH Emese, SZEKERES László, POÓR Gyula, HÉJJ Gábor, TAKÁCS István

[The treatment of osteoporosis and its consequences place a significant burden on the health care of developed countries. Modern therapeutical approaches are able to efficiently decrease the risk of osteoporotic bone fractures. However, we do not know whether the interventions introduced in the past 15 years have significantly reduced the number of osteoporotic fractures in real life, and if they have, how cost-effective this effect was. To answer these questions, we have analysed data of the Hungarian National Insurance Company collected between 2004-2010. During these 7 years, the number of bone fractures among patients treated for osteoporosis continuously decreased. This was also observed in the incidence of hip fractures. Interestingly, the mortality of osteoporotic patients was significantly lower than that of the same age group in the average population. Besides the efficient treatment of osteoporosis, this finding is also due to the outstanding general care provided by the specialised osteoporosis centers of the country. As a consequence of the reduction in fractures, 3.4 billion HUF was saved per year by the insurance company, which is approximately equal to the 3.5 billion HUF spent on the reimbursement of medicines used for the treatment of osteoporosis, which means that the investments show a return. The calculation of the quality- adjusted life years, which is the internationally accepted method of the WHO for the study of cost-effectiveness, shows that the above results were achieved in a remarkably cost-efficient way. At the same time, it is noteworthy and calls for caution that the decrease in reimbursement by the insurance company in 2007 resulted in a 51% drop in the number of patients receiving treatment, which radically reduced the observed efficiency.]