Journal of Nursing Theory and Practice

[European Council of Nursing Regulators]


FEBRUARY 28, 2013

Journal of Nursing Theory and Practice - 2013;26(01)



Further articles in this publication

Journal of Nursing Theory and Practice

[Non-healing (chronic) wounds on lower limbs]


[The incidence of chronic wounds is high (5-7% of the population); these include ulcers developing due to venal and arterial circulation failure, diabetes, tumours and pathological pressure. Chronic wounds represent serious economic and communal/individual social problems. Their treatment takes place at every level of healthcare: primary care, home nursing, specialist clinics, acute inpatient care and rehabilitation wards. Treating the wounds requires specialist expertise. Continuous training is essential, not only for doctors but also for nurses. Doctors and nurses have to work together in order to treat the wounds. The author sets out to describe the physiological basics of the healing of the wounds, the clinical properties of the wounds, and the principles of their professional treatment. ]

Journal of Nursing Theory and Practice

[Complications of diabetes on the foot, the treatment of diabetic foot ulcers]

RÉDLING Marianna

[Diabetic foot syndrome is an array of symptoms with a complex pathomechanism, the complications of which (if treated late) can make it necessary to amputate the limb. Approximately 15% of diabetes patients can expect foot sores to develop in the course of their illness. The author presents the vascular complications of diabetic that underpin the development of diabetic foot syndrome, the tests serving to diagnose them, and the typical clinical manifestations and complications of diabetic foot ulcers. The most important factors in the successful treatment of diabetic foot sores are summarised: normalisation of the general medical condition; alleviation of chronic pressure points; ensuring arterial circulation; infection control; regular and appropriate mechanical debridement; wound treatment in keeping with the given phase of healing; patient education; prevention of relapse. The author places particular emphasis on the screening tests, treatment methods and patient education tasks that can be performed by specialist nurses. ]

Journal of Nursing Theory and Practice

[Aspects of the treatment plan for chronic foot wounds on the basis of practical experience ]

IGNÁTH Györgyi

[When treating chronic wounds the nurse works responsibly as a member of the team, and this cannot be limited to simply following the doctor’s instructions and appropriately dressing the wound. During the treatment of the patient the nurse has to make assessments and observations, carry out tests, evaluate the results, and warn the doctor in good time of any symptoms that depart from the typical healing process that is to be expected in the treated wound. The author presents the principles and methods applied in the practice of wound treatment, highlighting the nurse’s tasks and scope of authority in this regard. ]

Journal of Nursing Theory and Practice

[Evidence in the presentation of factors influencing the development of pressure ulcers]


[The development and healing of pressure ulcers depends on a combination of several factors. The factors related to the patient (physical impacts, biological and psychosocial factors), as well as the influencing factors arising in relation to the lingering wound (e.g. the content, situation, size and blood supply of the sore, the condition of the wound bed, the presence of infection, the response to treatment) are all closely related to the patient’s general condition and the underlying disease. An important role is also played by the factors associated with the healthcare personnel (ability, professional qualifications, attitude), and the healthcare system (level of technical and economic advancement, preventive and wound care equipment, quality assurance, training). The author has set out to give a detailed description of these factors, supported by professional evidence. ]

Journal of Nursing Theory and Practice

[Preventive strategies applied in decubitus prevention in Hungary and Slovakia]


[The incidence of decubitus ulcers affects nurses working not only in Slovakian hospitals, but those in Hungary too. The proportion of patients with bedsores in a given institution partly depends on the nurses, since improper nursing has a major role in the development of this syndrome. By the same token, a low incidence of pressure ulcers is the best proof of high-quality nursing. The main motivation for the research was to gain an insight into the methods of decubitus prevention applied in the two countries. The purpose of the study was to show the current state of the prevention carried out in the two institutions, how a preventive attitude is instilled, what kind of assessment scale is used, what the protocols contain, what kind of aids are available for us, and how documentation is maintained.]

All articles in the issue

Related contents

Lege Artis Medicinae

[A short chronicle of three decades ]


[Hungarian professional periodicals started quite late in European context. Their publish­ing, editing and editorial philosophy were equally influenced by specific historical and political situations. Certain breaking points of history resulted in termina­tion of professional journals (War of In­de­pendence 1848-1849, First and Se­cond World Wars), however there were pe­riods, which instigated the progress of sciences and founding of new scientific journals. Both trends were apparent in years after the fall of former Hungarian regime in 1990. The structure of book and journal publishing has changed substantially, some publishers fell “victim” others started successfully as well. The latters include the then-established publishing house Literatura Medica and its own scientific journal, Lege Artis Me­di­cinae (according to its subtitle: New Hun­garian Medical Herald) issued first in 1990. Its appearance enhanced significantly the medical press market. Its scientific publications compete with articles of the well-established domestic medical journals however its philosophy set brand-new trends on the market. Concerning the medical community, it takes on its problems and provides a forum for them. These problems are emerging questions in health care, economy and prevention, in close interrelation with system of public health institutions, infrastructure and situation of those providing individual health services. In all of them, Lege Artis Medicinae follows consequently the ideas of traditional social medicine.]

Clinical Neuroscience

[Disease burden of Duchenne muscular dystrophy patients and their caregivers]


[Background and purpose - Data on the disease burden of Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy are scarce in Hungary. The aim of this study was to assess patients’ and their caregivers’ health related quality of life and healthcare utilisations. Methods - A cross sectional survey was performed as part of the European BURQOL-RD project. The EQ-5D-5L and Barthel Index questionnaires were applied, health care utilisations and patients’ informal carers were surveyed. Results - One symptomatic female carer, 50 children (boys 94%) and six adult patients (five males) participated in the study, the latter two subgroups were included in the analysis. The average age was 9.7 (SD=4.6) and 24.3 (SD=9.8) years, respectively. Median age at time of diagnosis was three years. The average EQ-5D score among children and adults was 0.198 (SD=0.417) and 0.244 (SD=0.322), respectively, the Barthel Index was 57.6 (SD=29.9) and 53.0 (SD=36.5). Score of satisfaction with healthcare (10-point Likert-scale) was mean 5.3 (SD=2.1) and 5.3 (SD=2.9). 15 children were hospitalised in the past 12 months for mean 12.9 (SD=24.5) days. Two patients received help from professional carer. 25 children (mean age 11.1, SD=4.4 years) were helped/supervisied by principal informal carer (parent) for mean 90.1 (SD=44.4) hours/week and further family members helped in 21 cases. Correlation between EQ-5D and Barthel Index was strong and significant (0.731; p<0.01) as well as with informal care time (-0.770; p<0.01), but correlation with satisfaction with health care was not significant (EQ-5D: 0.241; Barthel Index: 0.219; informal care: -0.142). Conclusion - Duchenne muscular dystrophy leads to a significant deterioration in the quality of life of patients. Parents play outstanding role in the care of affected children. This study is the first in the Central and Eastern European region that provides quality of life data in this rare disease for further health economic studies.]

Clinical Neuroscience

[Rehabilitation possibilities and results after neurosurgical intervention of brain tumors ]

DÉNES Zoltán, TARJÁNYI Szilvia, NAGY Helga

[Objectives - Authors examined the rehabilitation possi­bi­lities, necessities, and results of patients after operation with brain tumor, and report their experiences. Method - Retrospective, descriptive study at the Brain Injury Rehabilitation Unit, in National Institute for Medical Rehabilitation. Patients - Patients were admitted consecutively after rehabilitation consultation, from different hospitals, following surgical intervention of brain tumors, between 01 January 2001 and 31 December 2016. Patients participated in a postacute inpatient rehabilitation program, in multidisciplinary team-work, leaded by Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine specialist included the following activities: rehabilitation nursing, physical, occupational, speech, psychological and neuropsychological therapy. Results - At the rehabilitation unit, in the sixteen-year period 84 patients were treated after operation with brain tumor. Patients arrived at the unit after an average of 41 days to the time of the surgical intervention (range: 10-139 days), and the mean length of rehabilitation stay was 49 days (range: 2-193 days). The mean age of patients was 58 years (20-91), who were 34 men and 50 women. The main symptoms were hemiparesis (64), cognitive problems (26), dysphagia (23), aphasia (16), ataxia (15), tetraparesis (5), and paraparesis (1). The mean Barthel Index at the time of admission was 35 points, whereas this value was 75 points at discharge. After the inpatient rehabilitation, 73 patients improved functionally, the status of 9 patients did not show clinically relevant changes, and 2 patients deteriorated. During the rehabilitation 10 patients required urgent interhospital transfer to brain surgery units, 9 patients continued their oncological treatment, two patients continued rehabilitation treatment at another rehabilitation unit, and after rehabilitation 73 patients were discharged to their homes. Conclusions - Inpatient rehabilitation treatment could be necessary after operation of patients with brain tumor especially when functional disorders (disability) are present. Consultation is obligatory among the neurosurgeon, rehabilitation physician and the patient to set realistic rehabilitation goals and determine place and method of rehabilitation treatment, but even at malignancies cooperation with oncological specialist also needed. Authors’ experience shows benefits of multidisciplinary rehabilitation for patients after brain tumor surgery. ]

Clinical Neuroscience

[Health status and costs of ambulatory patients with multiple sclerosis in Hungary]

PÉNTEK Márta, GULÁCSI László, RÓZSA Csilla, SIMÓ Magdolna, ILJICSOV Anna, KOMOLY Sámuel, BRODSZKY Valentin

[Background and purpose - Data on disease burden of multiple sclerosis from Eastern-Central Europe are very limited. Our aim was to explore the quality of life, resource utilisation and costs of ambulating patients with multiple sclerosis in Hungary. Methods - Cross-sectional questionnaire survey was performed in two outpatient neurology centres in 2009. Clinical history, health care utilisation in the past 12 months were surveyed, the Expanded Disability Status Scale and the EQ-5D questionnaires were applied. Cost calculation was conducted from the societal perspective. Results - Sixty-eight patients (female 70.6%) aged 38.0 (SD 9.1) with disease duration of 7.8 (SD 6.7) years were involved. Fifty-five (80.9%) had relapsing-remitting form and 52 (76.5%) were taking immunomodulatory drug. The average scores were: Expanded Disability Status Scale 1.9 (SD 1.7), EQ-5D 0.67 (SD 0.28). Mean total cost amounted to 10 902 Euros/patient/year (direct medical 67%, direct nonmedical 13%, indirect costs 20%). Drugs, disability pension and informal care were the highest cost items. Costs of mild (Expanded Disability Status Scale 0-3.5) and moderate (Expanded Disability Status Scale 4.0-6.5) disease were 9 218 and 17 634 Euros/patient/year respectively (p<0.01), that is lower than results from Western European countries. Conclusion - Our study provides current inputs for policy making and contributes to understanding variation of costof- illness of multiple sclerosis in Europe.]

Clinical Neuroscience

Comparison of hospitalized acute stroke patients’ characteristics using two large central-eastern european databases

ORBÁN-KIS Károly, SZŐCS Ildikó, FEKETE Klára, MIHÁLKA László, CSIBA László, BERECZKI Dániel, SZATMÁRI Szabolcs

Objectives – Stroke is the third leading cause of death in the European region. In spite of a decreasing trend, stroke related mortality remains higher in Hungary and Romania when compared to the EU average. This might be due to higher incidence, increased severity or even less effective care. Methods – In this study we used two large, hospital based databases from Targu Mures (Romania) and Debrecen (Hungary) to compare not only the demographic characteristics of stroke patients from these countries but also the risk factors, as well as stroke severity and short term outcome. Results – The gender related distribution of patients was similar to those found in the European Survey, whereas the mean age of patients at stroke onset was similar in the two countries but lower by four years. Although the length of hospital stay was significantly different in the two countries it was still much shorter (about half) than in most reports from western European countries. The overall fatality rate in both databases, regardless of gender was comparable to averages from Europe and other countries. In both countries we found a high number of risk factors, frequently overlapping. The prevalence of risk factors (hypertension, smoking, hyperlipidaemia) was higher than those reported in other countries, which can explain the high ratio of recurring stroke. Discussion – In summary, the comparatively analyzed data from the two large databases showed several similarities, especially regarding the high number of modifiable risk factors, and as such further effort is needed regarding primary prevention.