Journal of Nursing Theory and Practice

[Etymology for the word nurse]


DECEMBER 15, 2021

Journal of Nursing Theory and Practice - 2021;34(6)

[Auothors review the etymology and semantics of the Hungarian word for ’to nurse’ and ’nursing’. The Hungarian word ’ápol’ originally meant to kiss, to caress, from which it developed over time into meaning ’to care for in sickness or in distress’. It is maintained that the activity denoted by the word ’ápol’ [nurse] must always be characterised by gentle and affectionate attention and devotion.]



Further articles in this publication

Journal of Nursing Theory and Practice

[Correct Methodology of the Blood Culture Sampling ]

BÁLINT Csaba, PAKAI Annamária, GRÓF Kinga, AHMANN Mercédesz Anna, VERZÁR Zsófia

[Various bloodstream infections are associated with high mortality, so early diagnosis is very important to reduce complications, with the gold standard procedure being blood culture and evaluation. Several databases were used to search for qualitative, relevant literatures (MEDLINE, PubMed, Ebsco). We selected national and international literature on the correct sampling of blood culture and sampling errors published between 2010 and 2020. The timing, method and location of blood culture sampling, the amount and frequency of sampling, the choice of haemoculture bottles, their storage and transport are all factors that influence the outcome. The choice of time can be independent of the clinical condition of the patient. Intravascular cannulation should be avoided if possible. Careful disinfection prior to haemoculture sampling and the use of chlorhexidine disinfection, which is already customary abroad, with the appropriate contact time, will both reduce contamination samples. Whether or not the patient is on antibiotic therapy is a key factor in the choice of blood culture bottle. To ensure optimal detection of pathogens, a quality control phase should be built into the pre-analytical processes. The solution to reduce the number of contaminated samples is to use sampling kits and to follow a mandatory blood culture sampling protocol.]

Journal of Nursing Theory and Practice

[A possible role of Advanced Practice Nurses in primary care - the possibility of screening for retinopathy in patients with diabetes]

TOKODI Attila Csaba, GALLOVICH Éva, RAJKI Veronika

[WHO data show that the prevalence of diabetes is constantly rising. The ocular complication of diabetes (Diabetic Retinopathy (DR)) is one of the leading causes of blindness worldwide. While the screening of the fundus is performed by ophthalmologists and optometrists in Hungary, internationally, the expertise of APN nurses is relied upon in primary care in many places. In Hungary, with modern methods, by integrating screening into primary care and at the same time by involving APN community nurses with master degree, the current screening rate of DR can be improved in the short term. In Hungary, the APN training leading to a university degree was launched in September 2017. The first APN community nurses with advanced competencies and master degree graduated in February 2019. In accordance with their qualifications, they have complex knowledge of the diagnosis of diabetes, the implementation of its screening, as well as the pharmacological and non-pharmacological therapy of the disease, and the tasks of nursing and patient education. They are able to independently evaluate the findings and decide on the modification, discontinuation of the required medication order, and the revision of the treatment plan. APN community nurses with a university degree are suitable for the care and follow-up of chronic patients in general practitioner practices and practice communities according to their level of competence.]

Journal of Nursing Theory and Practice

[Examination stress among BSc nursing students]


[To evaluate the stressors which affect students during their theoretical education and field clinical practices. We also examined their subjective health, physical activity, stress levels and the use of health-harming substances. During a quantitative research, we examined 133 first-, second-, third- and fourth-year, both full time and part-time nursing students at the Department of Nursing and Patient Care (BSc) with the help of an anonymous online self-completion questionnare. 49% of nursing students have considered discontinuing their nursing education program due to excessive stress. During their field clinical practice, contact with staff, fear of the unknown, making mistakes, and failure emerged as the most common stressors. The least common stressors included the quality of hospital equipment and the experience of dying/death. In all four years, lack of time, feeling overwhelmed, and difficult exams are the main sources of stress during the theoretical education. Undergraduate nursing students encounter a number of stressful stimuli during their academic years. Reducing or eliminating these stressors could reduce thoughts of discontinuing nursing education program, increase health status and last, the nursing profession could become more popular among higher educational health related students.]

Journal of Nursing Theory and Practice

[Nutritional Therapy in the Stroke Ward: Treatment of Dysphagia in Acute Care of Stroke Patients ]

SZABÓ Pál Tamás, KOVÁCS Andrea, HALÁSZ Tímea, BÉRES-MOLNÁR Katalin Anna, MOLNÁR Beatrix, BALOGH Zoltán, FOLYOVICH András

[Background: Dysphagia can reach 50% among stroke patients and might cause serious complications. Proper treatment of the disorder and personalized nutritional therapy can help reduce negative outcomes. Aim: Based on existing guidelines and our own practical experience, we intended to provide a clear and practical summary that can help understand the specific aspects of nutrition in the care of stroke patients. Conclusion: The care and nutrition therapy for stroke patients requires teamwork and expertise. Early detection of a swallowing disorder and personalized nutritional therapy can reduce the serious complications that threaten stroke patients.]

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Journal of Nursing Theory and Practice

[Hungarian Nurses Day]


[On February 19, 2022 We celebrate the 205th anniversary of the birth of the first national matronage (head nurse), Zsuzsanna Kossuth. Zsuzsanna Kossuth was characterized by a high degree of empathy, self-sacrifice, exemplary behaviour, and professionalism. She laid the foundation for the processes of nursing and patient care and performed outstanding professional work throughout his life. She made no distinction between man and man, she only saw the suffering patient, in every soldier and injured. She sacrificed his life for his profession. The Hungarian Nursing Association founded the Zsuzsanna Kossuth commemorative medal in 1998, the year of the 150th anniversary of the War of Independence, which is donated every year on February 19.]

Journal of Nursing Theory and Practice

[Healthcare and social aspects of nursing in relation to the rare Pompe disease]

TÓTH Mónika, VÁRDI Katalin Borbála

[Aim of the study: Pompe disease is a rare mitochondrial disease, which is treated with enzyme replacement therapy. The authors examined the lifestyles of patients diagnosed with Pompe disease, and their knowledge regarding the illness. They compared this with the results of the regular checkups performed during the care process, in order to assess the patients’ compliance. Sample and methods: The research was conducted among patients suffering from Pompe disease, treated at the Rehabilitation Department of the Törökbálint Institute of Pulmonary Medicine (N=14). The survey of the patients’ knowledge took place in the form of personal interviews. The findings related to the regular enzyme replacement therapy were recorded and collated in the course of interviews conducted by telephone with the nurses of the centres administering the treatment. The data was processed using Microsoft Excel software. Results: In 2012 in Hungary the number of patients diagnosed with Pompe disease was 14 (12 adults, 2 children). The time elapsed from emergence of the first symptoms to the precise diagnosis in the case of all known patients (except in the case of one screened child) was an average of 13.4 years. Ten of the patients were receiving enzyme replacement therapy. The survey revealed that the conditions of the patients receiving the enzyme replacement therapy did not deteriorate. In the case of the female child, the decrease in CK levels was accompanied by growth and movement consistent with her age, and an improvement in vocalisation. Conclusions: For patients diagnosed with the once fatal Pompe disease, enzyme replacement therapy now offers the opportunity of a full life; and complementary treatments not only boost the effectiveness of the enzyme replacement, but also improve the patients’ subjective quality of life.]

Journal of Nursing Theory and Practice

[Nursing career of the high-school students]


[Aim of the research: The aim of the study is to analyze the trends of student orientation in the age and compulsory education process by age group. In our research, we would like to answer the question of how much „popularity” the health care profession as a professional area among students participating in Hungarian public education. If you feel this area of expertise close to you, what kind of vision you have. Research and sampling methods: A self-constructed questionnaire was administered during 24 Oct 2017 - 13 Jan 2018. In all counties of Hungary, the authors sent it to at least one of the training sites and filled up with me (N=329). These training sites are involved in healthcare training. Data were analysed with SPSS 15.0 for Windows statistical program. Chi square, Mann-Whitney tests were applied (p <0,05). Results: Out of the 159 people (48%), 170 (52%) in the family have healthcare workers. When performing the controls of the distributions, we can conclude that there is no significant difference in the distribution between the two groups, so there is the same number - that is, statistically significant difference - of the proportion of those willing to choose the health care path. In terms of career choice, 276 (86%) of respondents believe it is likely to be oriented towards the health care path, with 46 people (14%) planning their life is in another direction. Seven of its principal did not answer the question. By completing the Mann-Whitney test, we can conclude that there is no significant difference between the two groups in the medians, so there is no difference - that is, statistically significant difference - with respect to career choice as a nursing profession’s esteem. Of the 329 participants, 215 (65%) replied that they would like to work as a nurse, while 114 (35%) responded that they would not choose this job. Conclusion: Don’t influence significantly the career entrant if there is a healthcare worker in the family. Who stand in front of career choice don’t influence significantly the appreciation but is more motivated by sympathy and helplessness toward another person.]

Journal of Nursing Theory and Practice

[Associated factors of independency in older adults with cognitive impairment living in a long term care institute]


[Aim of the research: Functional independence determines the elderly’s health and quality of life. In them cross-sectional study the authors analysed the associations between functional abilities (balance, gait, functional mobility, cognitive abilities), age, BMI and comorbidities and independency in older adults with cognitive impairment. Research and sampling methods: 110 elderly people were measured. Self-sufficiency was measured by the Katz-index, balance, and gait by the Tinetti Test and functional mobility by the Timed Up and Go Test. Correlations between variables were analysed with the Spearman’s rank-order correlation. Results: There was strong association between balance (r=0,557), gait (r=0,515), functional mobility (r=-0,647), and independency. It means the better the balance, gait, and functional mobility is, the higher the independency is. There was weak association between age, BMI, cognitive abilities, comorbidities and independency. Conclusion: Results show that preserving of the functional independence in older adults with cognitive impairment is a multidisciplinary task: physiotherapists and nurses should work together to complete doctors’ curative work of chronic diseases.]

Lege Artis Medicinae

[On nursing in a different way - What are we talking about? ]

SÖVÉNYI Ferencné, PERKÓ Magdolna, FEDINECZNÉ Vittay Katalin

[Using an uncustomary approach to nursing history, authors review the intensive development process in the 1990s that resulted in the transition of nursing from an occupation to profession in Hungary. An occupa­tion attains professional status if its practitio­ners have access to education and training of a considerable duration, it has independent professional organisation, an ethical code of its own and is regulated by law. The article addresses these factors discussing at length the history and development of nurs­ing education and training in Hungary, subsequently it describes the process arching from practical nursing to the appearance of nursing science, an intrinsic part of which was the birth of a scientific nursing journal “Nővér”. The relevant and effective legislation on nursing and nursing practice is re­viewed comprehensively and the efforts to establish professional nursing organisations are described. It is maintained that framework conditions had to be established as a necessary precondition for nursing to professionalise itself on its own and become a vocation highly regarded by society. ]