Hypertension and nephrology

[Risk estimates of advanced chronic kidney disease and predicting mortality in dialyzed patients]


FEBRUARY 24, 2021

Hypertension and nephrology - 2021;25(1)

DOI: https://doi.org/10.33668/hn.25.002

[In mostly the second part of the last decade lots of epidemiological study have been released about the progression of the chronic kidney disease (CKD) and theirs connection with the risk of death. The fact that lots of nephrologist from all over the world (from Canada to New-Zealand) are pretty much interested in this topic is absolutely proved by national (REIN Study – French Registry) and international (KDIGO Controversies Conference, DOPPS 1-5, or the European AROII Study) researchers with these epidemiological questions in their focus. The risk estimation facts that are able to show the life expectancy of patients with CKD 3-5 (expected time to dialysis or mortality risk before renal replacement therapy – RRT) and the early or hopefully longer survival odds of the dialyzed ones could be very useful not only for the medical stuff but also for the patients. In case of the predialyzed patients the focus has to be on the Bansal score and also on the Kidney Failure Risk Equation (KFRE) scores (with 4 and 8 variable); on the other hand in dialyzed patients the REIN score that prognose a short-term survival and the Cohen model (both are easy calculated with webcalculators) are in the highlight of importance. There is not a big difference (2- 7%) in validated researches between the prognosed and the real survival dates. Despite of this prediction has to always be evaluated individually in favour of the best decision we can make for the patients and in order to choose the right treatment: conservative therapy, dialysis or transplantation.]


  1. B. Braun Avitum Hungary Zrt. 6. Sz. Dialízisközpont, Szombathely
  2. Markusovszky Egyetemi Oktatókórház, Nefrológia, Szombathely
  3. Budai Egészségközpont, Budapest



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[Familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) is an inherited defect of cholesterol metabolism characterized by high plasma total cholesterol (TC) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels and premature cardiovascular disease risk. Prevalence of hypertension in FH is not clarified, but its appearance is independent risk factor for the development of cardiovascular disease. Therefore, optimal treatment has a major priority in this high-risk population. We aimed to investigate the lipid parameters and evaluate the presence of hypertension and its treatment characteristics in 86 newly diagnosed, untreated heterozygous FH patients (27 males, 59 females, mean age 53.6±13.4 years). We diagnosed FH by using the Dutch Lipid Clinic Network criteria. The mean TC level was 8.49±1.7 mmol/l, the mean LDL-C level was 6.11±1.5 mmol/l, the mean high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) level was 1.62±0.5 mmol/l, while the median lipoprotein (a) level was 301 mg/l. We diagnosed 33 FH patients (38.4%) with hypertension. Beta blockers were used in 23, ACE-inhibitors in 13, ARBs in 12, calcium channel blockers in 9, and HCT in 11 cases. 11 patients was treated with monotherapy, for 10 patients double, for 11 patients triple, while for 1 patient quadruple combined antihypertensive therapy was administered. Based on our results, hypertension might be underdiagnosed in this specific patient population. Neither the types nor the combination patterns of blood pressure lowering agents are in line with current guidelines. Up to date screening and treatment of hypertension should be worth considering in this extremely high risk population with enhanced atherosclerosis.]

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