Hypertension and nephrology

[International guidelines for blood pressure measurements, requirements]


SEPTEMBER 14, 2018

Hypertension and nephrology - 2018;22(03 klsz)

[The author presents the classification of current blood pressure measuring devices, the validation procedure, then lists the values of the measuring devices that have passed the international protocol validation procedure.]



Further articles in this publication

Hypertension and nephrology

[Letter to our Readers]

JÁRAI Zoltán, REUSZ György

Hypertension and nephrology

[Results of the comprehensive health screening of Hungary (MÁESZ) in 2017 and comparative results of 2010-2017 specially to hypertension]

BARNA István, KÉKES Ede, DAIKI Tenno, DANKOVICS Gergely, KISS István, A MÁESZ Programbizottsága nevében

[The year 2017 saw the continuation of Hungary’s greatest and to date most comprehensive health screening program started in 2010. The examinations - among them coronary examinations - covered the fields of cardiology and hypertension, they took place in a specially furnished lorry. In the program we measured blood pressure, pulse rate, calculated cardiovascular risk, plasma cholesterol, glucose and uric acid levels. Whole body analysis started with measuring height, weight, abdominal circumference and waist/hip ratio defining target body weight. Following the measurement of body fat and muscle content we decided the surface volume of the abdominal fat and calculated body mass index. Participants and results of the examinations of the people who have presented themselves for the test since 2017 have been evaluated. In the Program a total (52.2%) women and (47.8%) men were tested at 204 locations. Upon data processing with the help of a query 21.9% of the participants reported suffering from hypertension. The screening truck has been to 1505 places is Hungary, and travelled 183,335 km, 135,879 people have participated in comprehensive screening. The average systolic blood pressure among women was in the normal range up to the age of 55 years. The diastolic blood pressure levels were in the normal range for both sexes (with the exception of the age group 46-55 of men where it exceeded the upper limit of the normal range by a minimal extent). Among men stage 1 hypertension was the most frequent status for all age groups; blood pressures above 140/90 were measured for 39% of subjects from age 18 onwards. Conclusions: Thanks to the vast information obtained through the program a comprehensive picture has been drawn about Hungary’s present health status not only on a regional or cross sectional level but as it was described in the program, too.]

Hypertension and nephrology

[Recent Updates on Renal Impairments Caused by Hypertension]

NAGY Judit, KÉKES Ede, KISS István, KOVÁCS Tibor, SZEGEDI János

Hypertension and nephrology

[Role of ketoanalogue amino acids and diet in the treatment of patients with chronic kidney disease]

KISS István, HARIS Ágnes, DEÁK György

[Low protein diet is an important component of the non-pharmacological treatment of patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Along with the diet it is important to maintain appropriate energy intake to avoid malnutrition. It is recommended to supplement low protein diet (0.6-0.7 g protein/kg body weight/day) with essential amino acids and their ketoanalogues (ketoacids) in a dose of 1 tablet/8-10 kg body weight if there is a threat of protein malnutrition (eg. vegan diet). Very low protein diet (0.3-0.4 g protein/kg body weight/day) should be supplemented with ketoacids in a dose of 1 tablet/5 kg body weight. Low protein diet is recommended for patients with CKD stage 3 and progressively declining renal function, or nephrotic syndrome; in diabetic nephropathy; in CKD stage 4 and non-dialyzed CKD stage 5. Nephroprotective effect of very low protein diet is primarily expected is patients with an eGFR below 20-25 ml/min/1.73 m2 and good compliance. Dietary protein restriction may diminish acidosis and proteinuria, slow the progression of CKD and delay initiation of dialysis. Diets reduced in protein supplemented with appropriate energy intake and ketoacids are nutritionally safe. Dietary education and guidance of patients by qualified dietitians are of great importance in nephrology clinics. We illustrate the main points of our review with case reports.]

Hypertension and nephrology

[Telemedicine care for high-risk hypertensive patients with antihypertensive for reaching better blood pressure target ratio and smaller blood pressure variability]

KISS István, ÁDÁM Ágnes, HERCZEG Béla, MATOLTSY András, POÓR Ferenc, SZEGEDI János, VÁRALLYAY Zoltán, PAKSY András, KÉKES Ede

[Telehealth care of high-risk hypertensive patients for a better target blood pressure and smaller size blood pressure fluctuation. Authors conducted a one-year, multicentre, prospective, observational study with no intervention. Their aim was to achieve better targeting and smaller blood pressure fluctuation in patients with high risk hypertensive patients with the new type of doctorpatient co-operation and telemedicinal care than the conventional control method. In the active group, 50 patients, in the non-active group 47 treated hypertensive patients were analysed. During the observation period (1 year) the mean (± SD) of the systolic blood pressure decreased from 143.3 (15.1) mmHg to 134.5 (9.2) mmHg in the active group, but in the non-active group there was no significant decrease. The target blood pressure (< 140/90 mmHg) could be increased from 46% to 62%. The two characteristics of interpersonal visit-to-visit variability index. The standard deviation (SD) and variation coefficient (VC) showed a significant decrease in the active group. There was no change in the inactive group. A method supported by telemedicine-assisted and better patientphysician- assistant co-operation is suitable for increasing target blood pressure rates and reducing blood pressure fluctuation.]

All articles in the issue

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Clinical Neuroscience

Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease: A single center experience and systemic analysis of cases in Turkey

USLU Ilgen Ferda, ELIF Gökçal, GÜRSOY Esra Azize, KOLUKISA Mehmet, YILDIZ Babacan Gulsen

We aimed to analyze the clinical, laboratory and neuroimaging findings in patients with sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) in a single center as well as to review other published cases in Turkey. Between January 1st, 2014 and June 31st, 2017, all CJD cases were evaluated based on clinical findings, differential diagnosis, the previous misdiagnosis, electroencephalography (EEG), cerebrospinal fluid and cranial magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings in our center. All published cases in Turkey between 2005-2018 were also reviewed. In a total of 13 patients, progressive cognitive decline was the most common presenting symptom. Two patients had a diagnosis of Heidenhain variant, 1 patient had a diagnosis of Oppenheimer-Brownell variant. Seven patients (53.3%) had been misdiagnosed with depression, vascular dementia, normal pressure hydrocephalus or encephalitis. Eleven patients (87%) had typical MRI findings but only 5 of these were present at baseline. Asymmetrical high signal abnormalities on MRI were observed in 4 patients. Five patients (45.4%) had periodic spike wave complexes on EEG, all appeared during the follow-up. There were 74 published cases in Turkey bet­ween 2005 and 2018, with various clinical presentations. CJD has a variety of clinical features in our patient series as well as in cases reported in Turkey. Although progressive cognitive decline is the most common presenting symptom, unusual manifestations in early stages of the disease might cause misdiagnosis. Variant forms should be kept in mind in patients with isolated visual or cerebellar symptoms. MRI and EEG should be repeated during follow-up period if the clinical suspicion still exists.

Clinical Neuroscience

[Zonisamide: one of the first-line antiepileptic drugs in focal epilepsy ]


[Chronic administration of antiepileptic drugs without history of unprovoked epileptic seizures are not recommended for epilepsy prophylaxis. Conversely, if the patient suffered the first unprovoked seizure, then the presence of epileptiform discharges on the EEG, focal neurological signs, and the presence of epileptogenic lesion on the MRI are risk factors for a second seizure (such as for the development of epilepsy). Without these risk factors, the chance of a second seizure is about 25-30%, while the presence of these risk factors (for example signs of previous stroke, neurotrauma, or encephalitis on the MRI) can predict >70% seizure recurrence. Thus the International League Against Epilepsy (ILAE) re-defined the term ’epilepsy’ which can be diagnosed even after the first seizure, if the risk of seizure recurrence is high. According to this definition, we can start antiepileptic drug therapy after a single unprovoked seizure. There are four antiepileptic drugs which has the highest evidence (level „A”) as first-line initial monotherapy for treating newly diagnosed epilepsy. These are: carbamazepine, phenytoin, levetiracetam, and zonisamide (ZNS). The present review focuses on the ZNS. Beacuse ZNS can be administrated once a day, it is an optimal drug for maintaining patient’s compliance and for those patients who have a high risk for developing a non-compliance (for example teenagers and young adults). Due to the low interaction potential, ZNS treatment is safe and effective in treating epilepsy of elderly people. ZNS is an ideal drug in epilepsy accompanied by obesity, because ZNS has a weight loss effect, especially in obese patients.]

Clinical Neuroscience

To handle the HaNDL syndrome through a case: The syndrome of headache with neurologic deficits and cerebrospinal fluid lymphocytosis


The syndrome of headache with neurologic deficits and cerebrospinal fluid lymphocytosis (HaNDL) is a rare entity. This disease has been related to migrainous headaches. It is a benign, self-limited disorder, which is characterized by fluctuating neurological symptoms and cerebrospinal fluid lymphocytosis. We describe a case of a 47 years old man with acute onset of headache and aphasia. Cerebrospinal fluid analysis revealed a lymphocytic pleocytosis (25 cells/μl, 100% lymphocytes). Electroencephalogram showed moderate slow rhythm in the left hemisphere, with temporoparietal predominance, and without epileptiform activity. His blood tests as well as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) results were normal. With the diagnosis of HaNDL syndrome the patient was accepted in the Department of Neurology and discharged with full recovery.