Hypertension and nephrology

[Hungarian dialysis statistics: changing trends in the renal epidemiology]


MAY 10, 2019

Hypertension and nephrology - 2019;23(02)

DOI: https://doi.org/10.33668/hn.23.011

[In the last 30-35 years, dialysis care in Hungary has been a major development: both the incidence and prevalence of patients have increased year by year. Over the last decade, growth has slowed and is becoming more and more stabilized (similar trends can be seen in dialysis statistics in developed countries). Behind the dialysis indication the acute kidney injury (AKI) is more common than the end-stage renal disease (ESRD). The latter incidence has been stable for last 6 years (200-230 patient/million population). The annual average growth rate of prevalent dialysis patients was only 0.9%/year in the last 6 years. Among prevalent dialysis patients, the proportion of diabetic patients has remained unchanged for 10 years (26-27%), but those have increased who had hypertension nephropahty. The average age of incident and prevalent dialyzed patients has decreased gradually over the past 8 years (between 2009 and 2017 incident rate was from 67.1 to 63.0 years, prevalent rate was from 65.6 to 61.8 years). Unfortunately, just over half of the patients who dialyzed due to chronic kidney disease (CKD) have reached dialysis day 91. This is due to the high proportion of patient who was in urgent need of dialysis. In chronic hemodialysis (HD) program, the proportion of patients treated with arterovenous fistulas (AVF) decreases, while the rate of central venous catheter (CVC) users increases. The Hungarian peritoneal dialysis program in Europe is very good. The number of prevalent patients receiving renal replaement therapy (RRT) in Hungary in 2017 was 1005 for 1 million inhabitants.]



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[Diabetology in dialysis]


[According to epidemiological data, the number of diabetic patients requiring dialysis is increasing. Burnt-out diabetes, new onset diabetes during chronic dialysis treatment and new onset diabetes after transplantation diabetes are new types of diabetes compared to the traditional division forms. It is utmost important to evaluate education ability and acceptance the core values of lifestyle changes. Clear guidelines for oral anti-diabetic and insulin therapy have not yet been developed since this group of patients did not participate in previous major surveys. In order to formulate individualized therapeutic recommendations, it is imperative to perform regular glucose self-monitoring, which is also the cornerstone of solving unexpected situations. Both in hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis, special considerations should be applied to the diabetic patient group, this review focuses on the current understanding of available relevant knowledge and summarizes presumably extrarenal diabetic complications as well.]

Hypertension and nephrology

[Serum uric acid level in hypertension. Domestic experience based on the data of the Hungarian Hypertonia Register 2011., 2013., 2015. Part I. Introduction. Patients and methods. Basic data]


[Worldwide, screening in the general population detects an increase in serum uric acid levels in both sexes. This growth trend is also valid for hypertension. Authors studied the incidence of serum uric acid levels and its correlation with age, risk factors, anthropological, metabolic characteristics, blood pressure, blood pressure target, organ damage, age-related co-morbidity and drug therapy in 47,372 hypertensive patients (22,688 males, 24,684 women). In the first part of their analysis they present the method of analysis and the basic correlations. The uric acid level is higher in men than in women, with the advancement of age increasing. Increases in systolic and diastolic blood pressure are associated with increases in serum uric acid levels, with a tendency for systolic pressure to be significantly higher. For ladies, the rising trend is smaller and always lower in uric acid values. The uric acid value is higher in patients with the non-target blood pressure. The presence of co-morbidity significantly increases serum uric acid levels.]

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Hypertension and nephrology

[Guidelines and clinical practice: clinical audit of CKD-MBD in Hungarian dialyzed patients]

KISS István, KISS Zoltán, SZABÓ András, SZEGEDI János, BALLA József, LADÁNYI Erzsébet, CSIKY Botond, ÁRKOSSY Ottó, TÖRÖK Marietta, TÚRI Sándor, KULCSÁR Imre

[Patients suffering from chronic kidney disease reach the end-stage renal disease in ever growing numbers and this necessitates the start of their dialysis treatment. The alteration of bone and mineral metabolism together with the development of the consequent organ damages starts in early stages of the chronic kidney disease. The goal of our present trial was to survey the alterations or characteristics (laboratory results, concomitant diseases and treatment practice in Hungary) of the calcium (Ca) and phosphate (PO4) metabolisms [mineral-bone disorder occurring in chronic kidney disease (CKD-MBD) or formerly known as secunder hyperparathyreosis or renal ostedistrophy] in patients chronically treated with dialysis. We collected and analyzed data/results from 5334 chronically dialyzed patients. We categorized the patients into different groups according to the guidelines of CKD-MBD so basically by the level of serum calcium and parathormone (PTH) (se-Ca level is below or above 2.4 mmol/l; PHT level is below 65 pg/ml, between 65-150, 150-300, 300-500, 500-800 pg/ml or above 800 pg/ml) and then the characteristic variances were compared. The two most frequent primary causes of end-stage renal disease are hypertension (23%) and diabetes mellitus (22%). Serum calcium level was below the upper limit of the normal range (Ca <2.4 mmol/l) in the greatest proportion of our patients (n=4386), while the parathormone level was elevated (PTH >500 pg/ml) in large portion of patients (n=833). Likewise in a significant part of our patients (44.9%) the parathormone level was low (PTH <150 pg/ml). The concurrent pathological elevation of both the serum calcium and the parathormone levels was found in only a minority of the patients (n=150; 2.8%). All of the drugs influencing calcium-phosphate and parathormone levels were already accessible during the time of origin of the trial in Hungary, although the financial limitations significantly affected their prescription. This is one of the reasons why local treatment practice was not fully aligned with guidelines. On the other hand the application of native vitamin D had an especially low prevalence. To sum up, our results match the European practice on the whole, although we definitely need improvement in reaching the treatment targets and also the clinical treatment practice leading to it. We will prepare a proposal for further analysis and longterm extension of this trial.]

Hypertension and nephrology

[Therapy of isolated systolic hypertension III.]


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[Hypertension and diabetes mellitus]

SZEGEDI János, KISS István

[Hypertension and diabetes mellitus are endemics which affect large crowds; they play an important role in the morbidity and mortality of the population. Both diseases are cardiovascular risk factors, their co-occurrence increases the coronary risk. According to forecasts, there will be 60% increase in the number of hypertensive patients by 2025; it will affect 29% of the world’s adult population, 1.56 billion people. The number of patients with diabetes increases in all countries; 552 million diabetic patients should be expected by 2030. The simultaneous occurrence of both diseases may be a coincidence, but there is also causal relationship between the two diseases (diabetic nephropathy, metabolic syndrome). The two diseases often occur in endocrine diseases, and in connection with medicinal therapy (steroids, etc.). The simultaneous occurrence of these two diseases determines the therapeutic strategy. During the prevention and treatment of both diseases, the change in lifestyle has an important role (obesity, salt intake, physical activity).]

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[Epidemiology of hypertension in Hungary]


[The most important aspects of Hungarian hypertension epidemiology are demonstrated. The prevalence of hypertension is continuously increasing and in 2011 from the nearly 10 million population exceeded 3 million. Its occurrence rises in parallel with the increase in of systolic blood pressure and the progression of age, and exceeds 60% in those aged over 65 years. The average blood pressure is increasing in children and adolescents, and isolated systolic hypertension is often observed in those over 65-70 years. The situation is closely related to overweight in the young, while in elderly the atherosclerotic process results in low diastolic blood pressure. The prevalence is significantly different in some regions with the highest incidence in South-Transdanubia and North- Hungary. Overall, there is a higher incidence in women. Among known hypertensive patients, the ratio of men is greater till 40-45 years; thereafter, there will be an equilibration and in elderly women the incidence will be higher. It is interesting, that the morbidity and mortality have significantly increased in hypertension and diabetes since 2004, while the incidence of myocardial infarction and stroke has significantly decreased. As concerns organ damage, an increase in occurrence of left ventricular hypertrophy and microalbuminuria has been observed. Metabolic syndrome, diabetes mellitus and ischemic heart disease were the most frequent comorbidities.]

Hypertension and nephrology

[Isolated systolic hypertension in children and young adults I.]


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