Hypertension and nephrology

[Gender differences in sport-adaptation of intramural coronary resistance arteries]

TÖRÖK Marianna1

FEBRUARY 24, 2021

Hypertension and nephrology - 2021;25(1)

[Biomechanical and functional remodeling of coronary resistance arteries in physiological left ventricular hypertrophy has not been analyzed yet, and the possible sex differences are unknown. We aimed to study the biomechanics and function of these arteries during an exercise intervention. Wistar rats were divided into four groups: male and female sedentary controls (MSe and FSe) and male and female animals undergoing a 12-week intensive swim training programme (MEx and FEx). After the training sessions, LV morphology and function were checked by echocardiography, the coronary artery biomechanics and function were examined by pressure arteriography. Elastica remodeling was studied in resorcin-stained histological sections. The female animals had enhanced heart weight/body weight ratio compared to male rats. A similar outer radius and reduced inner radius resulted in an elevated wall-to-lumen ratio in the MEx and FEx animals compared to the sedentary controls. The wall elastic moduli increased in the MEx and FEx rats. The spontaneous tone and TxA2 agonist-induced tone was raised only in ExF animals, whereas the endotheliumdependent relaxation became more effective in ExM rats. Arteries of ExF rats had stronger contraction, whereas arteries of ExM animals had improved dilation. Range of coronary vascular reactivity increased in both exercised male and female rats, but its mechanism was different depending on sex. According to our results the coronary arterioles adapted to an elevated load during long-term exercise and this adaptation depended on sex. The observed sex differences in the biomechanics and function of the coronary resistance arteries of rats may contribute to better understanding of the physiological and pathological function of these arteries in active and retired athletes.]


  1. Semmelweis Egyetem, Klinikai Orvostudományok Doktori Iskola, Budapest



Further articles in this publication

Hypertension and nephrology

[Sudden death – ECG – hypertension]


[Sudden death (HH) is not only associated with coronary heart disease or heart failure, but is also present in hypertension, primarily associated with left ventricular hypertrophy, systolic pressure, and age. Co-morbidities of hypertension (diabetes, coronary heart disease, heart failure and renal failure) contribute greatly to its development. HH occurs due to ventricular fibrillation, or asystole. The auther demonstrates depolarization and repolarization pathologies leading to HH and detectable on the ECG and their characteristic ECG patterns. He also emphasizes the importance of resting heart rate and heart rate variability.]

Hypertension and nephrology

[Prevalence and treatment of hypertension in patients with newly diagnosed familial hypercholesterolemia]

NÁDRÓ Bíborka, DIÓSZEGI Ágnes, KOVÁCS Beáta, PARAGH György, PÁLL Dénes, HARANGI Mariann

[Familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) is an inherited defect of cholesterol metabolism characterized by high plasma total cholesterol (TC) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels and premature cardiovascular disease risk. Prevalence of hypertension in FH is not clarified, but its appearance is independent risk factor for the development of cardiovascular disease. Therefore, optimal treatment has a major priority in this high-risk population. We aimed to investigate the lipid parameters and evaluate the presence of hypertension and its treatment characteristics in 86 newly diagnosed, untreated heterozygous FH patients (27 males, 59 females, mean age 53.6±13.4 years). We diagnosed FH by using the Dutch Lipid Clinic Network criteria. The mean TC level was 8.49±1.7 mmol/l, the mean LDL-C level was 6.11±1.5 mmol/l, the mean high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) level was 1.62±0.5 mmol/l, while the median lipoprotein (a) level was 301 mg/l. We diagnosed 33 FH patients (38.4%) with hypertension. Beta blockers were used in 23, ACE-inhibitors in 13, ARBs in 12, calcium channel blockers in 9, and HCT in 11 cases. 11 patients was treated with monotherapy, for 10 patients double, for 11 patients triple, while for 1 patient quadruple combined antihypertensive therapy was administered. Based on our results, hypertension might be underdiagnosed in this specific patient population. Neither the types nor the combination patterns of blood pressure lowering agents are in line with current guidelines. Up to date screening and treatment of hypertension should be worth considering in this extremely high risk population with enhanced atherosclerosis.]

Hypertension and nephrology

[Risk estimates of advanced chronic kidney disease and predicting mortality in dialyzed patients]


[In mostly the second part of the last decade lots of epidemiological study have been released about the progression of the chronic kidney disease (CKD) and theirs connection with the risk of death. The fact that lots of nephrologist from all over the world (from Canada to New-Zealand) are pretty much interested in this topic is absolutely proved by national (REIN Study – French Registry) and international (KDIGO Controversies Conference, DOPPS 1-5, or the European AROII Study) researchers with these epidemiological questions in their focus. The risk estimation facts that are able to show the life expectancy of patients with CKD 3-5 (expected time to dialysis or mortality risk before renal replacement therapy – RRT) and the early or hopefully longer survival odds of the dialyzed ones could be very useful not only for the medical stuff but also for the patients. In case of the predialyzed patients the focus has to be on the Bansal score and also on the Kidney Failure Risk Equation (KFRE) scores (with 4 and 8 variable); on the other hand in dialyzed patients the REIN score that prognose a short-term survival and the Cohen model (both are easy calculated with webcalculators) are in the highlight of importance. There is not a big difference (2- 7%) in validated researches between the prognosed and the real survival dates. Despite of this prediction has to always be evaluated individually in favour of the best decision we can make for the patients and in order to choose the right treatment: conservative therapy, dialysis or transplantation.]

Hypertension and nephrology

[Prevention of polyuria during lithium treatment. Recent research and history]

[Renal toxicity of lithium is a highly important subject which may jeopardize the use of an agent needed by millions suffering from recurrent episodes of bipolar disorder. Lithium induced severe renal damage leading to end stage renal disease can be almost prevented today using lowered plasma lithium levels. But administration of medicines are necessary for the prevention of the lithium induced disturbance in renal concentrating operation and development of nephrogenic diabetes insipidus. Use of thiazides, non-steroid anti-inflammatory compounds (indomethacine) amiloride, high doses of desmopressin and their combinations are our present armamentarium. The present therapy for lithiuminduced nephrogenic diabetes insipidus in man is to counter anti-vasopressin action of lithium. The “future” treatment seems to be (on the basis of recent animal experiments) to enhance the sensitivity of the kidney to vasopressin action by administering pharmacologic blockade of the renal P2Y12 receptor by using clopidrogel or prasugrel.]

Hypertension and nephrology

[Welcome - Dear Reader!]


All articles in the issue

Related contents

Hypertension and nephrology

[Physical activity, physical function and exercise in chronic kidney disease]

NAGY Judit, APOR Péter, KISS István

[This review summarize the decreased physical activity and physical function of chronic kidney disease patients from the early stage of their renal disease; the favourable effects of exercise training on physical activity and function as well as on progression of chronic renal diseases. At the end, there is a recommendation for implementation of exercise in this renal patient population. The conclusion is that, on the basis of the evidences patients with chronic renal disease should be advised to increase their physical activity in all stages of their renal disea]

Journal of Nursing Theory and Practice

[Pulse Wave Velocity measurement among university students ]

KALMÁR Ágota, PÓSA Gabriella, FINTA Regina, NAGY Edit, SZILÁGYI Levente

[The aim of the study: The purpose of our investigation is to prove the favorable effect of regular physical activity on arteries. Material and method: 42 students (29 women; 13 men; age 24 ±2,71 years) volunteered for our research. Anthropometric data, segmental-, visceral body composition (TanitaSBCA) and arterial stiffness parameters (Arteriograph) were measured. Participants took part in an 8-week training. Interventional-group: started training during our research, control-group: doing sports constantly for years. Results: Compared to the age decadal artertial pulse wave velocity (PWVao) reference value both groups showed significant difference. PWVao significantly improved because of training by the interventional group (6,23±0,79; 5,87±0,59 p<0,01); while in the case of the control group there was no significant change (5,85±0,54; 5,87±0,63 p=0,80). The body composition data showed minimal correlation with PWVao. Conculsion: Regular training has favorable effect on one stiffness parameter of arteries. Already 8 weeks enough to reach significant change to reduce arterial stiffness and this condition can be maintained with long-term regular training.]

Lege Artis Medicinae


MÜLLER Veronika, SZABÓ Attila

[Increasing evidence suggests an important role of gender in the incidence, progression and different therapeutic possibilities of several diseases. Recent data demonstrated gender associated differences in the development and progression of chronic renal diseases. Present work reviews sexual dimorphism in different chronic renal diseases, summarizes underlying pathophysiological processes and therapeutic possibilities focusing on the role of gender. New evidences may present the base of gender based therapies in the future.]

Clinical Oncology

[The role of physical activity in oncology]


[Although nowadays there are a lot spoken about the role of physical activity in illness prevention, however it is barely connected to the treatment of malignant diseases. The regular exercises can improve physical performance and fi tness; increase muscle mass; change the body composition and proportion favorably. The positive psychological effects can decrease distress and depression; improve mood of patient; increase self-confi dence and self-respect. Finally, all of these will result in an improved quality of life. The malignant disease and the treatments can draw down either short-term or long-term consequences and side-effects that can largely infl uence or restrict everyday life. Most of them could be essentially reduced by the help of a physiotherapist experienced in oncology adopting a well-defi ned and customized workout.]