Hypertension and nephrology

[Covert cause of secondary hypertension for eleven years]

CSITÁRI Gergő László1, BÍRÓ Edina1, GENCSIOVÁ Kristína1, BESIR Viktória1, ALFÖLDI Sándor1, SIMONYI Gábor1

APRIL 22, 2022

Hypertension and nephrology - 2022;26(02)

DOI: https://doi.org/10.33668/hn.26.012

[In our study, we would like to present a secondary hypertension case with more than eleven years of medical history. Adequate diagnosis was evident from the beginning, certified by histological findings in addition to the typical clinical picture. Because of its endocrine relations this case report could be useful not only to hypertonologists, but also to diabetologists and obesitologists. At the end of our article, we have tried to summarize the most important messages for the practitioners.]


  1. Dél-budai Centrumkórház Szent Imre Egyetemi Oktatókórház, Anyagcsere Központ, Budapest



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Hypertension and nephrology

[Chronic stress in the development of essential hypertension. Role of rilmenidine in the treatment of stress induced hypertension]


[Hypertension is an independent risk factor of cardiovascular diseases. Several factors contribute to its development, including chronic stress, which may induce hypertension by increasing sympathetic activity. The signs of increasing sympathetic activity can be primarily detected in the initial phase of hypertension, which is characterized by the increase in cardiac output. In addition to the hemodynamic consequences (increase in cardiac output, tachycardia, coronary vasoconstriction, proarrhythmia), the increase in sympathetic activity has many harmful effects. Numerous metabolic (insulin resistance, dyslipidemia), structural and trophic effects (endothelial dysfunction, vascular hypertrophy, myocardial hypertrophy), as well as thrombotic and humoral processes (procoagulation, enhancement of thrombocyte aggregation, sodium retention, activation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone axis) may develop and consequently damage body functions at many targets. Several different antihypertensive drug classes are available for reducing increased sympathetic activity, including peripheral alpha and beta blockers and centrally acting drugs. First generation antihypertensive drugs with central mechanisms of action (e.g. clonidine, guanfacine, alpha-methyldopa) is currently rarely administered and only for a few indications as they have a significant adverse events profile. Among centrally acting, second generation drugs, rilmenidine stimulates imidazoline-I1 receptors and thus beneficially influences mild or moderate hypertension that involves enhanced sympathetic nervous system activity.]

Hypertension and nephrology

[Novelties in the diagnosis and treatment of X-linked hypophosphatemia]

RUESZ György Sándor, MIKES Bálint, CSIZEK Zsófia, HORVÁTH Orsolya

[X-linked hypophosphataemia (XLH) is the most common inherited cause of phosphate wasting. Its pathogenesis is complex, determined by the dysregulation of phosphate homeostasis and bone metabolism. We review herein the pathophysiology of XLH leading to multiple manifestations, stages of diagnosis and the treatment strategies. XLH is now in the scientific interest of pediatric nephrology, because a new treatment modality, burosumab became available in Hungary. Burosumab is a monoclonal antibody against fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF-23). XLH is caused by the loss of function mutations in ”phosphate regulating endopeptidase homolog, X-linked” (PHEX) gene, which results enhanced secretion of the phosphaturic hormone FGF-23. The diagnosis of XLH is based on signs of rickets and/or osteomalacia and decreased growth velocity in association with hypophosphataemia and renal phosphate wasting in the absence of vitamin D or calcium deficiency. Conventional treatment with oral phosphate supplementation together with active vitamin D (calcitriol or alfadiol) can improve bone metabolism, but only partial results can be achieved, and can promote side effects (nephrocalcinosis). The better understanding of the role of PHEX gene and FGF-23 levels in the pathomechanism helped to identify therapeutic options more properly. With monoclonal antibody therapy against FGF-23 the disease process can be interrupted, and complications can be prevented if the therapy is initiated in time. However, deformities already leading to disability cannot regress completely during burosumab therapy, highlighting the need of early diagnosis and the start of the biological treatment before complications.]

Hypertension and nephrology

[Cilostazol improves quality of life and lower limb functional capacity in lower extremity arterial disease regardless of age and gender – new results of the SHort-tERm cIlostazol eFFicacy and quality of life (SHERIFF) study]


[Intermittent claudication has a significant negative impact on the patients’ quality of life. Revascularization procedures and noninvasive medical therapie scan improve walking capacity. Cilostazol has IA recommendation for the treatment of intermittent claudication (IC). The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of three-month cilostazol treatment on the health related quality of life and on the lower limb functional capacity in women (F) and men (M), in patients under 65 years of age (Y) and among patients 65 years of age or older (O) with intermittent claudication in the clinical practice. The study was a multicenter, non-interventional trial, 812 lower extremity arterial disease (LEAD) patients (Fontaine II stage, mean age: 67.17 years, male/female: 58.25/41.75%, 506 patients aged ≥65 years) were enrolled, who received cilostazol (50 or 100 mg b.i.d.) for three months. Quality of life was evaluated with the EQ- 5D-3L questionnaire, functional capacity with the WELCH questionnaire. Walking distances, ankle-brachial index were measured at baseline and after 3-month. Upon conclusion of the study, the EQ-5D index improved (baseline: F [female] –0.49±0.23, M (male –0.44±0.22, Y (age <65 years) –0.45±0.21, O (age ≥65 years) –0.47±0.23; 3rd month: –0.27±0.18, –0.25±0.18, –0.25±0.18, –0.26±0.18; respectively, p<0.0001) and there was a significant increase in the WELCH score as well (baseline: F 18±13, M 20±14, Y 21±14, O 18±13; 3rd month: 31±18, 32±18, 32±19, 31±17; respectively, p<0.0001). Both pain-free and maximal walking distance increased: F 60.94%, (median: +50.26%), 49.57%, (median: + 42.86%), M 50.22%, (median: +50%), 37.7%, (median: + 33,33 %), Y 54,35 %, (median: + 56,2%), 36.78%, (median: +42.86%), O 54.62%, (median: +50%), 46.29% (median: +33.33%); respectively (p<0.001). Three months of cilostazol treatment improved quality of life and lower limb functional capacity in claudicant patients regardless of age and gender. The WELCH questionnaire is a useful tool in clinical practice for the evaluation of intermittent claudication treatment.]

Hypertension and nephrology

[Echocardiographic judgment of the left ventricular remodelling and heart failure’s types]

HATI Krisztina

[The heart responds to the damage to the heart muscle with various changes that are regulated by complex processes. If the harm is irreversible, changes that begin as an adaptation can become chronic and permanently worsen heart function. The author details below the pathological remodelling of the left ventricle that can lead to heart failure. It covers the types of heart failure based on the latest recommendations and presents the echocardiographic examination methods that can be used to assess the diastolic, systolic and right ventricular function of the heart.]

Hypertension and nephrology

[The importance of white-coat and masked hypertension: novelties]


[White-coat hypertension is a heterogenous clinical entity includes patients with lower and higher cardiovascular risk. It has a relative benign prognosis if it is not associated with other cardiovascular risk factors. It can increase, however, significantly the risk of new onset sustained hypertension and diabetes. The risk of cardiovascular events is unequivocally higher than that of normotensive patients, according to recent studies. Therefore, the proper evaluation of cardiovascular risk has utmost importance in white-coat hypertensive patients to determine the adequate treatment and follow-up. Masked hypertension, in the other hand, is not a benign phenotype, therefore regular screening with out-of office blood pressure measurements and pharmacological blood pressure lowering therapy is mandatory.]

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[The importance of continuous glucose monitoring in modern diabetes care]


[It is no exaggeration to say that there is a paradigm shift in the diabetes care. Since 2015, the driving force behind are primarily the widely spreading sensor technologies instead of the new insulin products and treatment regimens. The rapidly spreading sensor technologies are applied in more and more countries financially supported in type 1 diabetes since 2015. The use of Continuous Glucose Monitoring (CGM, tissue glucose sensor, simplified as sensor), which includes both real-time CGM (RT-CGM) and intermittently scanned CGM (isCGM), has grown rapidly over the past few years by improving sensor accuracy, greater convenience and ease of use, and expanding support of reimbursement. Numerous studies have demonstrated the significant clinical benefits of using CGM in diabetic patients, regardless of the type of insulin treatment. In this summary, we review the practical aspects of glucose monitoring, the optimal frequency of monitoring, the effectiveness, re­liability, and role of continuous glucose mo­­nitoring systems.]

Hypertension and nephrology

[Beyond the blood sugar reduction. SGLT-2 inhibitors in kidney protection]


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[Patient education and insulin treatment]


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[Bone mineral density and diabetes mellitus - First results]


[INTRODUCTION - Data on bone mineral density (BMD) in diabetes mellitus are contradictory in the literature. Early studies described a decreased bone mineral density in type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM), but recent studies report no osteopenia in T1DM.The BMD may depend on the quality of treatment for diabetes mellitus and on the presence of chronic complications. In type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) the BMD is not decreased, occasionally it can even be increased. PATIENTS AND METHODS - Bone mineral density was measured in 122 regularly controlled diabetic patients (T1DM: n=73, mean age: 43.6±11.1 years,T2DM: n=49, mean age: 61.8±9.8 years) by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry at the lumbar spine and at the femur. Results were compared to those of 40 metabolically healthy control persons with a mean age of 47.5±11.9 years.The patients’ carbohydrate metabolism was assessed by the average HbA1c level of the last three years.These values were 7.9±1.4 % in T1DM, and 7.5±1.7 % in T2DM. BMDs were classified based on the T-score and Z-score using the WHO criteria. RESULTS - There was no significant difference in T1DM or in T2DM compared to the reference group in the prevalence of either osteoporosis or of osteoporosis and osteopenia combined. CONCLUSION - BMD was not found to be decreased in patients with well-controlled metabolism compared to healthy controls.]

Hypertension and nephrology

[Summary of guidelines for American, European and International Companies in diabetes mellitus type 2 associated with hypertonia]

KÉKES Ede, DOLGOS Szilveszter

[The importance of hypertension in type 2 diabetes mellitus, the method of continuous blood pressure control and patient’s careas well as the forms of non-drug and drug therapy have been disclosed by presenting therapeutical recommendations from American, European scientific societies and international organizations. It has been established that the principles of care and treatment of hypertonia have basically remained unchanged in diabetes all over the world, despite the recent widespread debate over the interpretation of normal blood pressure and the consideration of the benefits of intensive or standard treatment.]