Hypertension and nephrology

[A 10-Year Jubilee – Success Story of the Lisonorm® Innovation]

EGYÜD Ferenc

DECEMBER 20, 2014

Hypertension and nephrology - 2014;18(05-06)

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Hypertension and nephrology

[The Comprehensive Hungarian Screening Program for Health Protection 2010-2020]

KISS István, DANKOVICS Gergely

Hypertension and nephrology

[The Juxtaglomerular Apparatus – Structure and Functioning of the Kidney’s “Brain”: Message and Conclusions of an Article Series Resulting from Decades of Research]

ROSIVALL László

Hypertension and nephrology

[Epidemiology of hypertension in Hungary]

SZEGEDI János, KÉKES Ede, SONKODI Sándor, KISS István

[The most important aspects of Hungarian hypertension epidemiology are demonstrated. The prevalence of hypertension is continuously increasing and in 2011 from the nearly 10 million population exceeded 3 million. Its occurrence rises in parallel with the increase in of systolic blood pressure and the progression of age, and exceeds 60% in those aged over 65 years. The average blood pressure is increasing in children and adolescents, and isolated systolic hypertension is often observed in those over 65-70 years. The situation is closely related to overweight in the young, while in elderly the atherosclerotic process results in low diastolic blood pressure. The prevalence is significantly different in some regions with the highest incidence in South-Transdanubia and North- Hungary. Overall, there is a higher incidence in women. Among known hypertensive patients, the ratio of men is greater till 40-45 years; thereafter, there will be an equilibration and in elderly women the incidence will be higher. It is interesting, that the morbidity and mortality have significantly increased in hypertension and diabetes since 2004, while the incidence of myocardial infarction and stroke has significantly decreased. As concerns organ damage, an increase in occurrence of left ventricular hypertrophy and microalbuminuria has been observed. Metabolic syndrome, diabetes mellitus and ischemic heart disease were the most frequent comorbidities.]

Hypertension and nephrology

[Guide for using methods of cardiovascular risk estimation]

KÉKES Ede

[Author analyzes the most frequently used, reliable cardiovascular risk estimation methods. Only those methods are useful that meet to the american and european prevention guidelines and were edited by processing of the great databases. The best known risk estimation methods are continuously is expanding by growing body of knowledge and by another iseful risk factors, because the only way in order to successfully prevent the cardiovascular diseases. Two types of method-groups are known: 1. Traditional narrowed form for the general practisers and for the large section of population, 2. Methods with a broader analysis and more risk factors for the specialists and scientists. In Europe PROCAM and Heart Score and their variations are most useful for the practical medical work, but it is possible to use the american ASCVD and Reynolds risk estimation methods as well using the help of the national correction factors. The methods with wider analysis and much more risk factors as the Mayo Clinic mode, Qrisk2 and IHMRS are suitable in assisting of the epidemiologic studies or scientific work.]

Hypertension and nephrology

[Chronic Kidney Disease in Disadvantaged Populations]

GARCIA-GARCIA Guillermo

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Late simultaneous carcinomatous meningitis, temporal bone infiltrating macro-metastasis and disseminated multi-organ micro-metastases presenting with mono-symptomatic vertigo – a clinico-pathological case reporT

JARABIN András János, KLIVÉNYI Péter, TISZLAVICZ László, MOLNÁR Anna Fiona, GION Katalin, FÖLDESI Imre, KISS Geza Jozsef, ROVÓ László, BELLA Zsolt

Although vertigo is one of the most common complaints, intracranial malignant tumors rarely cause sudden asymmetry between the tone of the vestibular peripheries masquerading as a peripheral-like disorder. Here we report a case of simultaneous temporal bone infiltrating macro-metastasis and disseminated multi-organ micro-metastases presenting as acute unilateral vestibular syndrome, due to the reawakening of a primary gastric signet ring cell carcinoma. Purpose – Our objective was to identify those pathophysiological steps that may explain the complex process of tumor reawakening, dissemination. The possible causes of vestibular asymmetry were also traced. A 56-year-old male patient’s interdisciplinary medical data had been retrospectively analyzed. Original clinical and pathological results have been collected and thoroughly reevaluated, then new histological staining and immunohistochemistry methods have been added to the diagnostic pool. During the autopsy the cerebrum and cerebellum was edematous. The apex of the left petrous bone was infiltrated and destructed by a tumor mass of 2x2 cm in size. Histological reexamination of the original gastric resection specimen slides revealed focal submucosal tumorous infiltration with a vascular invasion. By immunohistochemistry mainly single infiltrating tumor cells were observed with Cytokeratin 7 and Vimentin positivity and partial loss of E-cadherin staining. The subsequent histological examination of necropsy tissue specimens confirmed the disseminated, multi-organ microscopic tumorous invasion. Discussion – It has been recently reported that the expression of Vimentin and the loss of E-cadherin is significantly associated with advanced stage, lymph node metastasis, vascular and neural invasion and undifferentiated type with p<0.05 significance. As our patient was middle aged and had no immune-deficiency, the promoting factor of the reawakening of the primary GC malignant disease after a 9-year-long period of dormancy remained undiscovered. The organ-specific tropism explained by the “seed and soil” theory was unexpected, due to rare occurrence of gastric cancer to metastasize in the meninges given that only a minority of these cells would be capable of crossing the blood brain barrier. Patients with past malignancies and new onset of neurological symptoms should alert the physician to central nervous system involvement, and the appropriate, targeted diagnostic and therapeutic work-up should be established immediately. Targeted staining with specific antibodies is recommended. Recent studies on cell lines indicate that metformin strongly inhibits epithelial-mesenchymal transition of gastric cancer cells. Therefore, further studies need to be performed on cases positive for epithelial-mesenchymal transition.

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[The connection between the socioeconomic status and stroke in Budapest]

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[The well-known gap bet­ween stroke mortality of Eastern and Western Euro­pean countries may reflect the effect of socioeconomic diffe­rences. Such a gap may be present between neighborhoods of different wealth within one city. We set forth to compare age distribution, incidence, case fatality, mortality, and risk factor profile of stroke patients of the poorest (District 8) and wealthiest (District 12) districts of Budapest. We synthesize the results of our former comparative epidemiological investigations focusing on the association of socioeconomic background and features of stroke in two districts of the capital city of Hungary. The “Budapest District 8–12 project” pointed out the younger age of stroke patients of the poorer district, and established that the prevalence of smoking, alcohol-consumption, and untreated hypertension is also higher in District 8. The “Six Years in Two Districts” project involving 4779 patients with a 10-year follow-up revealed higher incidence, case fatality and mortality of stroke in the less wealthy district. The younger patients of the poorer region show higher risk-factor prevalence, die younger and their fatality grows faster during long-term follow-up. The higher prevalence of risk factors and the higher fatality of the younger age groups in the socioeconomically deprived district reflect the higher vulnerability of the population in District 8. The missing link between poverty and stroke outcome seems to be lifestyle risk-factors and lack of adherence to primary preventive efforts. Public health campaigns on stroke prevention should focus on the young generation of socioeconomi­cally deprived neighborhoods. ]

Clinical Neuroscience

Atypical presentation of late-onset Sandhoff disease: a case report

SALAMON András , SZPISJAK László , ZÁDORI Dénes, LÉNÁRT István, MARÓTI Zoltán, KALMÁR Tibor , BRIERLEY M. H. Charlotte, DEEGAN B. Patrick , KLIVÉNYI Péter

Sandhoff disease is a rare type of hereditary (autosomal recessive) GM2-gangliosidosis, which is caused by mutation of the HEXB gene. Disruption of the β subunit of the hexosaminidase (Hex) enzyme affects the function of both the Hex-A and Hex-B isoforms. The severity and the age of onset of the disease (infantile or classic; juvenile; adult) depends on the residual activity of the enzyme. The late-onset form is characterized by diverse symptomatology, comprising motor neuron disease, ataxia, tremor, dystonia, psychiatric symptoms and neuropathy. A 36-year-old female patient has been presenting progressive, symmetrical lower limb weakness for 9 years. Detailed neurological examination revealed mild symmetrical weakness in the hip flexors without the involvement of other muscle groups. The patellar reflex was decreased on both sides. Laboratory tests showed no relevant alteration and routine electroencephalography and brain MRI were normal. Nerve conduction studies and electromyography revealed alterations corresponding to sensory neuropathy. Muscle biopsy demonstrated signs of mild neurogenic lesion. Her younger brother (32-year-old) was observed with similar symptoms. Detailed genetic study detected a known pathogenic missense mutation and a 15,088 base pair long known pathogenic deletion in the HEXB gene (NM_000521.4:c.1417G>A; NM_000521:c.-376-5836_669+1473del; double heterozygous state). Segregation analysis and hexosaminidase enzyme assay of the family further confirmed the diagnosis of late-onset Sandhoff disease. The purpose of this case report is to draw attention to the significance of late-onset Sandhoff disease amongst disorders presenting with proximal predominant symmetric lower limb muscle weakness in adulthood.

Clinical Neuroscience

A variant of Guillain-Barre syndrome after SARS-CoV-2 vaccination: AMSAN

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Introduction - Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a respiratory infection that has rapidly become a global pandemic and vaccines against SARS-CoV-2 have been developed with great success. In this article, we would like to present a patient who developed Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS), which is a serious complication after receiving the inactive SARS-CoV-2 vaccine (CoronaVac). Case report – A 76-year-old male patient presented to the emergency department with nine days of progressive limb weakness. Two weeks prior to admission, he received the second dose of CoronaVac vaccine. Motor examination revealed decreased extremity strength with 3/5 in the lower extremities versus 4/5 in the upper extremities. Deep tendon reflexes were absent in all four extremities. Nerve conduction studies showed predominantly reduced amplitude in both motor and sensory nerves, consistent with AMSAN (acute motor and sensory axonal neuropathy). Conclusion - Clinicians should be aware of the neuro­logical complications or other side effects associated with COVID-19 vaccination so that early treatment can be an option.

Clinical Neuroscience

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Vaccines against the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) have been rapidly developed to prevent coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. There is increasing safety concerns regarding COVID-19 vaccines. We report a 78-year old woman who was presented with tetraparesis, paresthesias of bilateral upper extremities, and urinary retention of one-day duration. Three weeks before these symptoms, she was vaccinated with CoronaVAC vaccine (Sinovac Life Sciences, China). Spine magnetic resonance imaging showed longitudinally extensive transverse myelitis (TM) from the C1 to the T3 spinal cord segment. An extensive diagnostic workup was performed to exclude other possible causes of TM. We suggest that longitudinally extensive TM may be associated with COVID-19 vaccination in this case. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of longitudinally extensive TM developing after CoronaVac vaccination. Clinicians should be aware of neurological symptoms after vaccination of COVID-19.