Hungarian Immunology

[Mosaic of Autoimmunity]

SZEKANECZ Zoltán

JANUARY 22, 2008

Hungarian Immunology - 2008;7(01-02)

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Further articles in this publication

Hungarian Immunology

[“Simply the BeSt”]

SZEKANECZ Zoltán

Hungarian Immunology

[Etanercept in early rheumatoid arthritis]

SZEKANECZ Zoltán

Hungarian Immunology

[Kinetic measurement on flow cytometer simultaneous monitoring of intracellular progresses]

MÉSZÁROS Gergő, RÓNAI Katalin Zsuzsanna, TOLDI Gergely, KAPOSI Ambrus, VÁSÁRHELYI Barna, TRESZL András

[INTRODUCTION - Flow cytometry provides an opportunity for real-time monitoring of intracellular processes in several cell populations simultaneously. Cells stained with specific fluorescent dyes are sequentially measured during kinetic FACS measurements. Fluorescent light signals obtained in cells are recorded and analyzed to describe the alteration of the investigated parameter(s) over time. The use of kinetic FACS assays is not spread as there was no mathematic algorithm to characterize objectively the distribution of data and kinetic changes. MATERIALS, METHODS, RESULTS - We developed a new approach which fits functions to measured data sets, describes the statistical distribution and forms a basis for statistical comparison between individual kinetic measurements. We created two FACS assays on BD FACS Aria instrument. The first one monitors calcium flux, generation of reactive oxygen species and mitochondrial membrane potential, while the second one monitors mitochondrial calcium flux, nitric oxide generation and plasma membrane potential in CD4+ and CD8+ lymphocytes simultaneously before and after the administration of a lymphocyte activator. CONCLUSIONS - This technique may be used to investigate purposes (i.e. to test the impact of any agent (such as immunmodulatory drugs) on cellular processes in lymphocytes) and to diagnostic purposes (i.e. to test the alteration of lymphocyte activation characteristics in disease).]

Hungarian Immunology

[Pseudolymphoma orbitae]

VÁNCSA Andrea, GERGELY Lajos, NEMES Zoltán, BÍRÓ Edit, ILLÉS Árpád, BAKÓ Gyula

[INTRODUCTION - Pseudolymphoma orbitae is a rare and difficult entity. The cooperation of the pathologist and clinician is needed to properly manage the patient. CASE REPORT - The authors report the case history of a 38 years old male patient. His disease started at the age of 30. He was previously treated with allergic rhinitis. No definitive diagnosis was made for eight years. Several surgical biopsies were made from nasal mucosa, but no specific histologyical diagnosis was applicable. At the age of 30 he developed an unilateral exophthalmus on the left side. Thyroid associated ophthalmopathy was ruled out several times with laboratory analysis. High dose methylprednisone therapy was repeatedly given with limited results. At the age of 34 orbital CT and MRI scan confirmed the pseudotumour orbitae already compressing the optical nerve. Laboratory analysis again ruled out thyroid associated ophthalmopathy. Churg-Strauss syndrome, Wegener’s granulomatosis or Sjögren’s syndrome could be ruled out. A bone marrow trephine biopsy excluded systemic hematological disease as well. A biopsy was performed from the retrobulbar mass again, which confirmed the lymphoid hyperplasia with B-cell dominance. High dose methylprednisone and local irradiation resulted only moderate decrease of the mass, so systemic chemotherapy was started using CVP (cyclophosphamide, vincristin, prednisone) then CHOP (CVP + anthrycycline) polychemotherapy for eight cycles and subcutaneous interferon-α for 20 months. CONCLUSIONS - This resulted a complete regression of the disease, and the patient is well for 48 months now.]

Hungarian Immunology

[Comparison of disease-modifying drugs in rheumatoid arthritis]

SZŰCS Gabriella, SZEKANECZ Zoltán

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Lege Artis Medicinae

[The role of fathers in the family therapy of eating disorders, with special regard to mosaic families]

TÚRY Ferenc, SZENTES Annamária

[Eating disorders (anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa) are the typical forms of modern disorders of civilization. In the therapy of young (below age of twenty years) patients the family therapy can play a decisive role. During family therapy, in the case of mosaic families (newly organized families after divorce and second marriage) it is a frequent question, which family members should be involved into the therapeutical sessions: the biological parents, or the members of the actual families. In this paper two cases are reported where mosaic families were consulted. In the family therapy the new distribution of parental roles, the strengthening of the paternal responsibility of the foster-father were crucial in the families. In both cases a full remission occurred. As a conclusion we can state that during family therapy of eating disordered patients - and supposedly in other psychosomatic disorders - in the case of mosaic families the involvement of the actual family members, and the strengthening of the parental role can be an important factor in the therapeutical efficacy.]

Lege Artis Medicinae

[HUMAN DENDRITIC CELLS AND INFECTIVE AGENTS]

KIS Zoltán

[Dendritic cells represent important components of the innate and adaptive immune responses. Human dendritic cells can be divided into two major subsets: myeloid and plasmacytoid (lymphoid) dendritic cells. The unique function of the dendritic cells is to capture antigens, present and to activate the antigenic peptides to the T lymphocytes. Dendritic cells go through a maturation process both in vitro and in vivo. By the use of pathogenrecognition- receptors the immature dendritic cells sense diverse pathogens or their various components, or cellular factors produced by the infected neighboring non-dendritic cells, and maturation signals are transduced for the dendritic cells. The heterogeneity of the pathogen-recognition-receptors and the microbial stimuli initiate a broad range of interactions between dendritic cells and infectious agents. Dendritic cells infected with certain viruses produce only a few infectious particles, but express and present viral antigens to T lymphocytes and immune response is initiated (influenza virus). Dendritic cells infected with certain pathogens not only initiate immune response but also disseminate the pathogen (human immunodeficiency virus, Mycobacterium tuberculosis). Some pathogens are killed in the dendritic cells, but the antigens are presented to the T cells, and immune responses are induced (Chlamydia trachomatis and Chlamydia psittaci). Dendritic cells capture antigens produced by infected neighbouring cells and present them to T lymphocytes, thus immune response is initiated (human cyto-megalovirus, herpes simplex virus). Dendritic cells are responsible for virus-induced immunosupp-ression; dendritic cells infected with certain pathogens form syncytia with T cells, thereby contribute to the suppression of T cell functions directed against opportunistic infections (measles virus). Dendritic cells can present not only foreign antigens but also self-antigens and when immature dendritic cells become mature upon exposure to inflammatory processes or to pathogens capable of activating them they can induce autoimmunity.]

Hungarian Immunology

[Mutations of La gene: the proper reaction of the immune system]

SEMSEI Imre

[Numerous hypotheses have emerged to solve the problem and the pathomechanism of autoimmunity so far. Different factors are suspected, from viruses to neuroendocrine elements, to be a pathogen in the etiology of autoimmune diseases. Most of the theories are based on the assumption that something happens to the immune system and it leads to an autoimmune reaction against the proper self. This paper indicates that, at least in certain cases, the immune system reacts properly against the altered cells; therefore the cause of the autoimmunity lies in the other improper functioning of the body. Experimental data show that La autoantigen plays a role not only as a diagnostic marker but it may participate in the pathomechanism of certain autoimmune diseases as well. Mutations in the exon 7 of La gene have such consequences that could lead to the formation of autoimmune reactions detected.]

Ca&Bone

[Vitamin D in autoimmun disorders: the immunregulatory effect of vitamin D and therapeutic opportunities]

ZÖLD Éva, SZODORAY Péter, GAÁL János, SZEGEDI Andrea, SZEGEDI Gyula, BODOLAY Edit

[There is recent evidence that genetic and environmental factors play an important role in the development of autoimmune diseases. Vitamin D deficiency is one of the environmental factors that may play a role in developing autoimmune diseases. Low vitamin D status has been implicated in the etiology of autoimmune diseases such as multiple sclerosis, systemic lupus erythematosus, rheumatoid arthritis, inzulin dependent diabetes mellitus, and inflammatory bowel disease. Experimentally, vitamin D deficiency results in an increased incidence of autoimmune disease. The authors discuss the accumulating evidence pointing to a link between vitamin D and autoimmunity. The optimal level of vitamin D intake is necessary to normalize the immune functions and it plays an important role in the development of self-tolerance. Targets for vitamin D in the immune system have been identified and the mechanism of vitamin D mediated immunoregulation is beginning to be understood. On the basic of recent knowledge, vitamin D causes a decrease in Th1-driven autoimmune response and repairs the function of regulatory T cells. Increased vitamin D intakes might decrease the incidence and severity of autoimmune diseases.]

Hungarian Immunology

[Autoimmunity as a result of escape from RNA surveillance]

SEMSEI Imre, DARISE Farris, BACHMANN Michael

[The pathomechanisms of autoimmune diseases are still unknown. Numerous factors are thought to play a role in the formation of the diseases (genetic arrangement, hormonal factors, exogen and endogen viruses, etc.) and many hypotheses have been formulated to explain the role of these factors. Most of the theories suspect that disturbance of the immune system is the clue but according to other researchers the immune system performs properly and one has to find other alterations that could be blamed for the formation of the autoimmune diseases. The aim of our present work is to show that certain genetic alterations together with the mistake of the RNA surveillance system could lead to autoimmune reactions. Results of immune research conducted in the past two decades revealed that there are mutations in the hot spot region of exon 7 of the La gene in the peripheral lymphocytes of patients suffering from certain autoimmune diseases (Sjögren's syndrome, SLE). RNAs originated from the mutant gene contain premature termination codon and therefore the RNA surveillance mechanism should get rid of these RNAs in order to prevent the formation of mutant proteins. However, because of the mistake of the surveillance system mutant proteins are formed that could finally lead to the autoimmune reactions.]