Hungarian Immunology

[Etanercept in early rheumatoid arthritis]


JANUARY 22, 2008

Hungarian Immunology - 2008;7(01-02)



Further articles in this publication

Hungarian Immunology

[The role of endothelium, cell migration, chemokines and angiogenesis in inflammatory rheumatic diseases]


[Endothelial cells, leukocyte-endothelial interactions and angiogenesis are highly involved in the pathogenesis of inflammation and thus in that of inflammatory rheumatic diseases. As this research area is very progressive, one needs to review novel molecular mechanisms and new therapeutic approaches in this respect. Authors review the most important functions of endothelial cells, the process of leukocyte extravasation, tissue infiltration and their cellular and molecular basis. Endothelial cells themselves produce a number of inflammatory mediators including interleukin-1 (IL-1), IL-6, IL-8, chemokines and others. Among cell adhesion molecules, β1 and β3 integrins, as well as E-, L- and P-selectins and their respective ligands have been implicated in leukocyte-endothelial adhesion. In recent years, numerous inflammatory mediators, cytokines, chemokines and proteases have been implicated in angiogenesis and angiostasis. Hypoxia, the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-angiopoietin system and mechanisms driven by β3 integrins are of major importance during angiogenesis. Significant amount of data have become available of the regulation of cell adhesion, migration and neovascularisation. Adhesion, chemokine and angiogenesis research has important clinical, practical aspects for antirheumatic and anti-cancer therapy. VEGF antagonists, anti-integrin antibodies, chemokine and chemokine receptor inhibitors, as well as thalidomide are currently in the first line of development.]

Hungarian Immunology

[Kinetic measurement on flow cytometer simultaneous monitoring of intracellular progresses]

MÉSZÁROS Gergő, RÓNAI Katalin Zsuzsanna, TOLDI Gergely, KAPOSI Ambrus, VÁSÁRHELYI Barna, TRESZL András

[INTRODUCTION - Flow cytometry provides an opportunity for real-time monitoring of intracellular processes in several cell populations simultaneously. Cells stained with specific fluorescent dyes are sequentially measured during kinetic FACS measurements. Fluorescent light signals obtained in cells are recorded and analyzed to describe the alteration of the investigated parameter(s) over time. The use of kinetic FACS assays is not spread as there was no mathematic algorithm to characterize objectively the distribution of data and kinetic changes. MATERIALS, METHODS, RESULTS - We developed a new approach which fits functions to measured data sets, describes the statistical distribution and forms a basis for statistical comparison between individual kinetic measurements. We created two FACS assays on BD FACS Aria instrument. The first one monitors calcium flux, generation of reactive oxygen species and mitochondrial membrane potential, while the second one monitors mitochondrial calcium flux, nitric oxide generation and plasma membrane potential in CD4+ and CD8+ lymphocytes simultaneously before and after the administration of a lymphocyte activator. CONCLUSIONS - This technique may be used to investigate purposes (i.e. to test the impact of any agent (such as immunmodulatory drugs) on cellular processes in lymphocytes) and to diagnostic purposes (i.e. to test the alteration of lymphocyte activation characteristics in disease).]

Hungarian Immunology

[MCP-1 (monocyte chemoattractant protein-1) G/A and T-bet (T-helper promoter factor) C/G polymorphisms in primary Sjögren’s syndrome and systemic lupus erythematosus]

KOVÁCS Attila, KONCZ Ágnes, ENDREFFY Emőke, ARANKA László, PETRI Ildikó, ELLER József, SZALAI Csaba

[INTRODUCTION - Monocyte chemoattractant protein- 1 (MCP-1) is a β-chemokine involved in the attraction and accumulation of mononuclear granulocytes towards the site of inflammation. One of the transcriptional factors of T-cells is called T-bet. PATIENTS AND METHODS - The authors investigated the MCP-1-2518 G/A and T-bet 310 C/G (His33Gln) polymorphisms evaluating the distribution of the specific genotypes in 45 patients with primary Sjögren's syndrome (pSS), 51 patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), and in 320 healthy blood donors as the control group. MCP-1-2518 G/A and T-bet 310 C/G polymorphisms were detected with molecular genetic methods from the purified genomic DNA. RESULTS - The frequency of the MCP-1-2518 AG heterozygous genotype decreased tendentiously only in SLE patients, while the frequency of the MCP-1 AA homozygous genotype increased comparing to the control group (13.7% vs. 5.9%; Pearson’s χ2 test=6.125, ns.). Analyzing the genotype frequency for the MCP-1 wild (GG) and AA homozygous genotypes in pSS group, the MCP-1 AA homozygous genotype proved to be more frequent comparing to the control group (82.8%:17.2% vs. 90.7%:9.3%; Pearson’s χ2 test 1.755, ns). These relations showed only tendentious association in the SLE group (81.6%:18.7% vs. 90.7%:9.3%; Pearson’s χ2 2.811, p=0.094, ns.) There was not any significant correlation between the investigated MCP-1- 2518 G/A and the T-bet 310 C/G polymorphisms and the TNF-α -308 G/A and -238 allele polymorphisms. The frequency of T-bet was equal in relation with heterozygous (CG) to wild CC genotype in the investigated two autoimmune disorders. The GG homozygous genotype for T-bet could not be found in SLE and pSS groups, likely to be a protective factor. CONCLUSIONS - The above mentioned polymorphisms didn’t show any significant correlation with TNF-α -308 and -238 allele polymorphisms. The further research of the MCP-1 G/A and T-bet C/G polymorphisms is important, because of their possible prognostic importance for SLE and pSS.]

Hungarian Immunology

[Pseudolymphoma orbitae]

VÁNCSA Andrea, GERGELY Lajos, NEMES Zoltán, BÍRÓ Edit, ILLÉS Árpád, BAKÓ Gyula

[INTRODUCTION - Pseudolymphoma orbitae is a rare and difficult entity. The cooperation of the pathologist and clinician is needed to properly manage the patient. CASE REPORT - The authors report the case history of a 38 years old male patient. His disease started at the age of 30. He was previously treated with allergic rhinitis. No definitive diagnosis was made for eight years. Several surgical biopsies were made from nasal mucosa, but no specific histologyical diagnosis was applicable. At the age of 30 he developed an unilateral exophthalmus on the left side. Thyroid associated ophthalmopathy was ruled out several times with laboratory analysis. High dose methylprednisone therapy was repeatedly given with limited results. At the age of 34 orbital CT and MRI scan confirmed the pseudotumour orbitae already compressing the optical nerve. Laboratory analysis again ruled out thyroid associated ophthalmopathy. Churg-Strauss syndrome, Wegener’s granulomatosis or Sjögren’s syndrome could be ruled out. A bone marrow trephine biopsy excluded systemic hematological disease as well. A biopsy was performed from the retrobulbar mass again, which confirmed the lymphoid hyperplasia with B-cell dominance. High dose methylprednisone and local irradiation resulted only moderate decrease of the mass, so systemic chemotherapy was started using CVP (cyclophosphamide, vincristin, prednisone) then CHOP (CVP + anthrycycline) polychemotherapy for eight cycles and subcutaneous interferon-α for 20 months. CONCLUSIONS - This resulted a complete regression of the disease, and the patient is well for 48 months now.]

Hungarian Immunology



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Neuroscience highlights: Main cell types underlying memory and spatial navigation

KRABOTH Zoltán, KÁLMÁN Bernadette

Interest in the hippocampal formation and its role in navigation and memory arose in the second part of the 20th century, at least in part due to the curious case of Henry G. Molaison, who underwent brain surgery for intractable epilepsy. The temporal association observed between the removal of his entorhinal cortex along with a significant part of hippocampus and the developing severe memory deficit inspired scientists to focus on these regions. The subsequent discovery of the so-called place cells in the hippocampus launched the description of many other functional cell types and neuronal networks throughout the Papez-circuit that has a key role in memory processes and spatial information coding (speed, head direction, border, grid, object-vector etc). Each of these cell types has its own unique characteristics, and together they form the so-called “Brain GPS”. The aim of this short survey is to highlight for practicing neurologists the types of cells and neuronal networks that represent the anatomical substrates and physiological correlates of pathological entities affecting the limbic system, especially in the temporal lobe. For that purpose, we survey early discoveries along with the most relevant neuroscience observations from the recent literature. By this brief survey, we highlight main cell types in the hippocampal formation, and describe their roles in spatial navigation and memory processes. In recent decades, an array of new and functionally unique neuron types has been recognized in the hippocampal formation, but likely more remain to be discovered. For a better understanding of the heterogeneous presentations of neurological disorders affecting this anatomical region, insights into the constantly evolving neuroscience behind may be helpful. The public health consequences of diseases that affect memory and spatial navigation are high, and grow as the population ages, prompting scientist to focus on further exploring this brain region.

Clinical Neuroscience

Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease: A single center experience and systemic analysis of cases in Turkey

USLU Ilgen Ferda, ELIF Gökçal, GÜRSOY Esra Azize, KOLUKISA Mehmet, YILDIZ Babacan Gulsen

We aimed to analyze the clinical, laboratory and neuroimaging findings in patients with sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) in a single center as well as to review other published cases in Turkey. Between January 1st, 2014 and June 31st, 2017, all CJD cases were evaluated based on clinical findings, differential diagnosis, the previous misdiagnosis, electroencephalography (EEG), cerebrospinal fluid and cranial magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings in our center. All published cases in Turkey between 2005-2018 were also reviewed. In a total of 13 patients, progressive cognitive decline was the most common presenting symptom. Two patients had a diagnosis of Heidenhain variant, 1 patient had a diagnosis of Oppenheimer-Brownell variant. Seven patients (53.3%) had been misdiagnosed with depression, vascular dementia, normal pressure hydrocephalus or encephalitis. Eleven patients (87%) had typical MRI findings but only 5 of these were present at baseline. Asymmetrical high signal abnormalities on MRI were observed in 4 patients. Five patients (45.4%) had periodic spike wave complexes on EEG, all appeared during the follow-up. There were 74 published cases in Turkey bet­ween 2005 and 2018, with various clinical presentations. CJD has a variety of clinical features in our patient series as well as in cases reported in Turkey. Although progressive cognitive decline is the most common presenting symptom, unusual manifestations in early stages of the disease might cause misdiagnosis. Variant forms should be kept in mind in patients with isolated visual or cerebellar symptoms. MRI and EEG should be repeated during follow-up period if the clinical suspicion still exists.

Clinical Neuroscience

CANOMAD syndrome with respiratory failure

SALAMON András, DÉZSI Lívia, RADICS Bence, VARGA Tímea Edina, HORTOBÁGYI Tibor, TÖMÖSVÁRI Adrienn, VÉCSEI László, KLIVÉNYI Péter, RAJDA Cecília

CANOMAD (chronic ataxic neuropathy, ophthalmoplegia, M-protein agglutination, disialosyl antibodies) syndrome is a rare polyneuropathy. IgM paraproteins react with ganglioside-containing disialylated epitopes resulting in dorsal root ganglionopathy and B-lymphocyte infiltration of cranial and peripheral nerves. Clinical features include ataxia, slight muscle weakness, areflexia, sensory- and cranial nerve symptoms. Case studies have reported the efficacy of rituximab and intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg) treatments. We present the case of a 57-year-old man, who had difficulty walking, with numbness and clumsiness in all limbs. He had areflexia, vibratory sensation loss and ataxia. Laboratory tests showed IgM monoclonal components and disialosyl antibodies in the serum. Nerve conduction studies indicated severe sensorimotor demyelinating polyneuroradiculopathy. Despite IVIg and rituximab treatments, the patient’s disease course gradually worsened and he died of respiratory failure. Neuropathological examination revealed dorsal column- and dorsal root atrophy with mixed mononuclear cell infiltration. This article aims to draw attention to this syndrome, and the use of early potent immunosuppressive treatment to improve patients’ quality of life.

Clinical Neuroscience

Retinal morphological changes during the two years of follow-up in Parkinson’s disease

ATUM Mahmut, DEMIRYÜREK Enes Bekir

The study aims to investigate the relationship between the progression of idiopathic Parkinson’s disease (IPD) and retinal morphology. The study was carried out with 23 patients diagnosed with early-stage IPD (phases 1 and 2 of the Hoehn and Yahr scale) and 30 age-matched healthy controls. All patients were followed up at least two years, with 6-month intervals (initial, 6th month, 12th month, 18th month, and 24th month), and detailed neurological and ophthalmic examinations were performed at each follow-up. Unified Parkinson’s Disease Rating Scale part III (UPDRS Part III) scores, Hoehn and Yahr (H&Y) scores, best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA), intraocular pressure (IOP) measurement, central macular thickness (CMT) and retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness were analyzed at each visit. The average age of the IPD and control groups was 43.96 ± 4.88 years, 44.53 ± 0.83 years, respectively. The mean duration of the disease in the IPD group was 7.48 ± 5.10 months at the start of the study (range 0-16). There was no statistically significant difference in BCVA and IOP values between the two groups during the two-year follow-up period (p> 0.05, p> 0.05, respectively). Average and superior quadrant RNFL thicknesses were statistically different between the two groups at 24 months and there was no significant difference between other visits (p=0.025, p=0.034, p> 0.05, respectively). There was no statistically significant difference in CMT between the two groups during the follow-up period (p> 0.05). Average and superior quadrant RNFL thicknesses were significantly thinning with the progression of IPD.

Clinical Neuroscience

[Ulcerative carpal tunnel syndrome]


[The carpal tunnel syndrome is the most frequent compression-induced neuropathy. A severe but rare clinical manifestation of this disorder associates with ulceration, acral osteo-lysis and mutilation of the terminal phalanges of the second and third fingers. Recognition of this disorder is difficult, because various dermatological and internal diseases might lead to acral ulcerative lesions, and these patients are seldom referred to neurological and/or electrodiagnostic examination. In this article, we present three cases of this rare clinical form of carpal tunnel syndrome and discuss the electrodiagnostic findings. The early diagnosis is important since decompression of the median nerve in due time might prevent mutilation and could significantly improve the patients’ quality of life.]