[Burnout syndrome - prevention and treatment]
DECEMBER 05, 2017
Clinical Oncology - 2017;4(04)
DECEMBER 05, 2017
Clinical Oncology - 2017;4(04)
[The defi nition of burnout syndrome was established due to the recognition of changes that practising physicians experienced in their affective state and behaviour as well as the observation of physical symptoms that put their health at risk. Burnout syndrome can be characterised by a triadic set of factors: emotional exhaustion, depersonalisation, and decline of professional achievement. The present article aims to describe burnout syndrome with regard to the fact that similarities and differences between burnout syndrome and affective disorders such as depression must be highlighted. The focus of this article is that health care professionals burnout is multicausal and it is insuffi cient to put only the individual in the spotlight although it is imperative that we attend to the individual fi rst. It is essential to highlight the fact that without changes in the institutional work culture and requirements the prevalence of burnout syndrome can hardly decrease. It is also the aim of this work to provide the practising health care professional with information that they can easily transform into immediate help.]
[Bladder cancer is the most common malignancy involving the urinary system. Urothelial (formerly called transitional cell) carcinoma is the predominant histologic type in the developed countries, where it accounts for approximately 90 percent of all bladder cancers. The optimal management of nonmuscle invasive urothelial cancer is highly important. For patients with muscle invasive cancer the gold standard treatment is the cystectomy. If the patient unable or unwilling to undergo radical cystectomy with urinary diversion, complete TURBT combined with radiation therapy plus chemotherapy may offer an alternative bladder-sparing approach. Patients with muscle invasive disease and regional lymph node metastasis limited to the pelvis (N1-N3), but without more distant lymph node or visceral metastasis may be treated with six cycles of cisplatin-based chemotherapy followed by cystectomy or a combined-modality approach. In metastatic cases the combination chemotherapy may prolong survival and often provides palliation of symptomatic disease. Checkpoint inhibition immunotherapy has substantial clinical activity in post-chemotherapy patients and is the preferred therapy for patients who have progressed after platinumbased therapy or is not suitable for them.]
[Radiotherapy with protons is a promising technology in the fi eld of modern radiation oncology. From a physical point of view, radiotherapy with protons has important advantages compared to the currently used photons due to its unique energy absorption profi le, which may result in a better local tumor control and reduced radiation-induced side effects. Increasing number of patients is treated with protons and carbon-ions. Our report aim to present the current status of proton radiotherapy including physical and technological aspects, standard and non-standard indications, ongoing clinical trials and the proton vs. photon debate in terms of patient selection.]
[The ubiquitin-proteasome pathway is the most important element in the regulation of intracellular protein metabolism. Its main function is the degradation of the unnecessary proteins either as part of normal metabolic balance or in case of misfolding or part of the deregulation as in cancer cells using proteolytic enzymes. The importance of this pathway has been acknowledge by Nobel prize. In certain diseases as in several malignancies, where the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway is not able to remove the proteins due to dysfunction or accumulation in a high quantity. The unregulated accumulation of proteins could lead to cell death. This phenomenon was proven by the appearance of proteasome-inhibitors targeting mainly myeloma. It should be mentioned that clinical aspects myeloma has been discussed in an excellent review by Mikala and his colleagues in Klinikai Onkológia.]
Journal of Nursing Theory and Practice
[The aim of the study: The aim of the presented study was to investigate the psychological well-being and burnout among ambulance personnel of the Hungarian National Ambulance Service. Our goal was to identify the ambulance specific stressors that negatively affect the psychological health of personnel and lead to burnout. Material and method: The quantitative, cross-sectional study included 1979 ambulance personnel. Level of burnout was measured by Pines-Aronson Burnout Inventory. SPSS version 17.0 was used for statistical analyses. Types of analyses included Khi square test, ANOVA and correlation analysis. Level of significance was defined at p<0.05. Results: The 40% of ambulance personnel are affected by job-related stressors. The heightened and constant state of readiness does not let time for discussing work-related experiences. There was significant correlation between burnout level, years worked at NAS, and the evaluation of workplace circumstances and climate. Conclusion: Due to the results of the present study we created different possibilities of prevention and intervention that can help handle the symptoms of burnout among ambulance personnel.]
Autism spectrum disorder is a neurodevelopmental disorder with a heterogeneous presentation, the etiology of which is not clearly elucidated. In recent years, comorbidity has become more evident with the increase in the frequency of autism and diagnostic possibilities of inborn errors of metabolism. One hundred and seventy-nine patients with diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder who presented to the Pediatric Metabolism outpatient clinic between 01/September/2018-29/February/2020 constituted the study population. The personal information, routine and specific metabolic tests of the patients were analyzed retrospectively. Out of the 3261 patients who presented to our outpatient clinic, 179 (5.48%) were diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder and were included in the study. As a result of specific metabolic examinations performed, 6 (3.3%) patients were diagnosed with inborn errors of metabolism. Two of our patients were diagnosed with classical phenylketonuria, two with classical homocystinuria, one with mucopolysaccharidosis type 3D (Sanfilippo syndrome) and one with 3-methylchrotonyl Co-A carboxylase deficiency. Inborn errors of metabolism may rarely present with autism spectrum disorder symptoms. Careful evaluation of the history, physical examination and additional findings in patients diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder will guide the clinician in the decision-making process and chose the appropriate specific metabolic investigation. An underlying inborn errors of metabolism may be a treatable cause of autism.
Although vertigo is one of the most common complaints, intracranial malignant tumors rarely cause sudden asymmetry between the tone of the vestibular peripheries masquerading as a peripheral-like disorder. Here we report a case of simultaneous temporal bone infiltrating macro-metastasis and disseminated multi-organ micro-metastases presenting as acute unilateral vestibular syndrome, due to the reawakening of a primary gastric signet ring cell carcinoma. Purpose – Our objective was to identify those pathophysiological steps that may explain the complex process of tumor reawakening, dissemination. The possible causes of vestibular asymmetry were also traced. A 56-year-old male patient’s interdisciplinary medical data had been retrospectively analyzed. Original clinical and pathological results have been collected and thoroughly reevaluated, then new histological staining and immunohistochemistry methods have been added to the diagnostic pool. During the autopsy the cerebrum and cerebellum was edematous. The apex of the left petrous bone was infiltrated and destructed by a tumor mass of 2x2 cm in size. Histological reexamination of the original gastric resection specimen slides revealed focal submucosal tumorous infiltration with a vascular invasion. By immunohistochemistry mainly single infiltrating tumor cells were observed with Cytokeratin 7 and Vimentin positivity and partial loss of E-cadherin staining. The subsequent histological examination of necropsy tissue specimens confirmed the disseminated, multi-organ microscopic tumorous invasion. Discussion – It has been recently reported that the expression of Vimentin and the loss of E-cadherin is significantly associated with advanced stage, lymph node metastasis, vascular and neural invasion and undifferentiated type with p<0.05 significance. As our patient was middle aged and had no immune-deficiency, the promoting factor of the reawakening of the primary GC malignant disease after a 9-year-long period of dormancy remained undiscovered. The organ-specific tropism explained by the “seed and soil” theory was unexpected, due to rare occurrence of gastric cancer to metastasize in the meninges given that only a minority of these cells would be capable of crossing the blood brain barrier. Patients with past malignancies and new onset of neurological symptoms should alert the physician to central nervous system involvement, and the appropriate, targeted diagnostic and therapeutic work-up should be established immediately. Targeted staining with specific antibodies is recommended. Recent studies on cell lines indicate that metformin strongly inhibits epithelial-mesenchymal transition of gastric cancer cells. Therefore, further studies need to be performed on cases positive for epithelial-mesenchymal transition.
Cognitive dysfunction (CD) is a common non-motor symptom of Parkinson’s disease (PD). Alexithymia is a still poorly understood neuropsychiatric feature of PD. Cognitive impairment (especially visuospatial dysfunction and executive dysfunction) and alexithymia share common pathology of neuroanatomical structures. We hypothesized that there must be a correlation between CD and alexithymia levels considering this relationship of neuroanatomy. Objective – The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between alexithymia and neurocognitive function in patients with PD. Thirty-five patients with PD were included in this study. The Toronto Alexithymia Scale–20 (TAS-20), Geriatric Depression Inventory (GDI) and a detailed neuropsychological evaluation were performed. Higher TAS-20 scores were negatively correlated with Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS) similarities test score (r =-0.71, p value 0.02), clock drawing test (CDT) scores (r=-0.72, p=0.02) and verbal fluency (VF) (r=-0.77, p<0.01). Difficulty identifying feelings subscale score was negatively correlated with CDT scores (r=-0.74, p=0.02), VF scores (r=-0.66, p=0.04), visual memory immediate recall (r=-0.74, p=0.01). VF scores were also correlated with difficulty describing feelings (DDF) scores (r=-0.66, p=0.04). There was a reverse relationship between WAIS similarities and DDF scores (r=-0.70, p=0.02), and externally oriented-thinking (r=-0.77,p<0.01). Executive function Z score was correlated with the mean TAS-20 score (r=-62, p=0.03) and DDF subscale score (r=-0.70, p=0.01) Alexithymia was found to be associated with poorer performance on visuospatial and executive function test results. We also found that alexithymia was significantly correlated with depressive symptoms. Presence of alexithymia should therefore warn the clinicians for co-existing CD.
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