Clinical Neuroscience


FEKETE Tamás Fülöp1, VERES Róbert1, NYÁRY István1

NOVEMBER 30, 2006

Clinical Neuroscience - 2006;59(11-12)

[Herniation of the meninges through a defect of the spinal canal is a spinal meningocele, and is usually located dorsally in the lumbosacral region. Meningoceles are usually part of a complex developmental disorder, or of a systemic disease, or it can be iatrogenic, as well. We report a very rare case of a true anterior thoracic meningocele.]


  1. Országos Idegsebészeti Tudományos Intézet, Budapest



Further articles in this publication

Clinical Neuroscience

[Report of the Hungarian Epilepsy League]


Clinical Neuroscience


Clinical Neuroscience


MERKLI Hajnalka, NAGY Ferenc, PÁL Endre, GÁTI István, KOVÁCS Norbert, KOMOLY Sámuel, ILLÉS Zsolt

[Amyotrophic lateralsclerosis is a progressive neurodegenerative disease resulting in loss of upper and lower motoneurons. Here we analyzed the clinical and epidemiological data of 202 ALS patients admitted to our department between 1950 and 2004. Risk and protective factors influencing onset and progression of the disease were examined. We also analyzed the relationship between first clinical symptoms/signs and prognosis of the disease. Our data suggest the importance of toxic factors in the initiation of the disease and the effect of clinical phenotype on the progression of ALS.]

Clinical Neuroscience


VARGA Hedvig, PÁRDUTZ Árpád, TAJTI János, VÉCSEI László, JEAN Schoenen

[Migraine is one of the most common neurological disorder affecting up to 14% of the population. The disease shows sexual dimorphism, thus gonadal steroids may play an important role in its patophysiology. One model of migraine headache is the systemic administration of nitric oxide (NO) donor nitroglycerin (NTG), which triggers a delayed attack without aura in many migraine patients but not in healthy volunteers. NTG is also able to activate the neurons of the caudal trigeminal nucleus in the rat. In our review we summarise the effect of NTG on the expression of some molecules, in the superficial laminae of the spinal portion of trigeminal nucleus caudalis, which play an important role in the pathomechanism of headaches, and the modulatory effect of chronic estradiol treatment. Our data show that NTG was able to modify all the examined substances in the caudal trigeminal nucleus, while chronic estradiol treatment abolished this effect. These data may help to understand the mechanisms by which estrogens influence trigeminal nociception and how nitric oxide triggers migraine attacks.]

Clinical Neuroscience


POZSEGOVITS Krisztián, KAZUO Suzuki, NAGY Zoltán

[Background - In the industrialized countries the very elderly stroke patient is more frequent than before. For the time being Japanese people have the highest expected lifespan, so the epidemiological features of stroke in the very elderly can be examined here quite easily. From a few publications with low case number it is known that in this group of patients the statistical characteristics of stroke is remarkably different from the youngers' one. Subjects and methods - The subjects aged 85 or more years were selected from the Akita Stroke Registry with first-ever acute stroke from 1996 to 1998. Results - 8,046 cases were recorded. There were 7362 patients aged <85 years, and 684 patients aged ≥85 years (8.5%). Sex ratio (women/men) was 1.89 in the two age groups. In the population of Akita the crude incidence of firstever stroke was 222/100,000/year, and 1,085/100,000/year in the very elderly, who were characterized with relatively lower prevalence of stroke risk factors, except that of atrial fibrillation (26.9%) and cardiac diseases (34.2%). The stroke subtype distribution (cerebral infarction 73.2%, intracerebral haemorrhage 20.6%, subarachnoidal haemorrhage 6.1%) was significantly different from the one known in Japan. Mortality rates were considerably high, especially in the SAH group. The most powerful prognostic factor of death was the consciousness level at onset. The following in order of predicting value was the SAH stroke subtype. Conclusion - While people aged 85 years or more had relatively lower prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors, they suffered stroke with very high frequency, the evolved cerebrovascular event caused very severe symptoms and led to death with high rate. Implicitly this is illuminating the complexity of aging as a procession, furthermore it raises the importance of prevention, more rather of the acute stroke care and rehabilitation in this high age group.]

All articles in the issue

Related contents

Clinical Neuroscience



[Objective - The standard surgical procedures used in degenerative thoracic and lumbar spinal canal stenosis allows decompression of the neural structures by unroofing the spinal canal, often resulted in destruction or insufficiency of facet joints, sacrifice the interspinosus/supraspinosus ligament complexes and stripping of the paraspinal muscles altering an already pathologic biomechanical milieu causing segmental instability. Various less invasive techniques exists to save the integrity and prevent the instability of the spine and allow decompression of neural structures located in the spinal canal. The authors discusses the experiences with technique of unilateral laminotomy for bilateral decompression. Methods - The unilateral laminotomy for bilateral decompression technique was performed at 60 levels in 51 patients to decompress the symptomatic degenerative stenosis of the thoracic and lumbar spinal canal. The inclusion criteria were used as follows: symptoms of neurogenic claudication and/or radiculopathy, myelopathy, neuroimaging evidence of degenerative stenosis and absence of instability. Symptoms were considered refractory to nonsurgical conservative management or myelopathy was detected. Results - The distribution of mostly affected segments were the L 4-5 (45%) and L3-4 (28.4%). Neurogenic claudication and walking distance improved during the follow up period in all patients. Seven patients (13.73%) reported excellent, 32 (62.74%) good, 12 (23.53%) fair outcome and no patient a poor overall outcome. The low back pain was the major residual postoperative complaint. 25 (49%) patients were very satisfied with their outcome, 23 (45.1%) were fairly satisfied, 2 (3.9%) were not very satisfied and 1 (2%) patients was dissatisfied. Conclusion - The unilateral laminotomy for bilateral microdecompression technique minimizes resection of and injury to tissues not directly involved in the pathologic process, while affording a safe and through decompression of neural structures located in a degeneratively stenotic spinal canal.]

Clinical Neuroscience

[The role of reconstructive surgery for upper limbs in the rehabilitation of tetraplegia (case report)]


[As part of the rehabilitation of tetraplegical patients, movement improving operations have been carried out for more than 30 years. The scant results of the early 70's caused such a standstill and division among professionals, that operations on the upper limbs on tetraplegical patients became questionable. The authors started operating upper limb reconstructions on tetraplegia patients for achieving a basic hand function i.e. keypinch, grasping etc. in 2001. Three cases are quoted and one of them, operated ten months ago is described in details. The postoperative treatment of the other two patients has not finished yet. In 1998, a twenty-three years old girl had her fifth and sixth cervical vertebra broken in a car accident. The rugged break of the fifth vertebral body damaged the spinal chord. After the accident all four limbs became ataxic and a complete numbness occurred distally from the thoracic level of the chest. The patient went through a CV corpectomia, a corpus complementation, a CIV-V dissectomia and a CIV-VII ventrofixation. After the operation the movements of the upper limbs improved but those of the lower limbs did not. Her general condition stabilised after the treatments at the intensive care and the laryngological, the urological and the plastical surgery as well as the complex therapy at the rehabilitation department. She moved around in a wheelchair. After a para-coordinational treatment she was able to lift up small objects, but because of her paralysed bending and stretching finger muscles she was not able to hold heavier objects with her hands. In March 2002 a grip improving operation was carried on her dominant right hand. Twelve weeks after the operation she could lift up a weight of 2 kg and she was able to keypinch and grip with force.]

Hungarian Radiology

[Sarcoidosis involving liver and spleen, and with hypercalcemia]

TÓTH Mónika, WENINGER Csaba, MORÓ Zsuzsanna, SZOMOR Árpád

[INTRODUCTION - Sarcoidosis is a relatively common multisystemic disorder. Chest involvement is most frequent, but any organ can be involved. In case of abdominal lesions the suspicion of sarcoidosis rarely arises. CASE REPORT - A 53-year old female patient with a history of crural pain unresponsive to medications and weight loss of unknown origin was sent to the internist. Hypercalcemia and bone pain suggested multiple myeloma, however, this diagnosis could not be confirmed. Chest X-ray examination was negative. Splenomegaly and multiple hypodens splenic and hepatic lesions were detected by ultrasound and abdominal computed tomography. Finally, ultrasound guided biopsy of the liver proved stage II sarcoidosis. Steroid therapy was initiated and the splenic and hepatic lesions seen with ultrasound and CT scan disappeared. CONCLUSION - Sarcoidosis is usually suspected following chest X-ray or during chest CT examination. Nevertheless, our case demonstrates that multiple lesions in the spleen or liver may indicate sarcoidosis even in the absence of thoracic lesions. Biopsy taken from the lesions can lead to adequate diagnosis.]

Clinical Neuroscience

[Split laminotomy and complementary spacer insertion for opening and enlargement of the thoracic spinal canal at infiltrative intramedullary tumor removal]


[Objective - The author main objective was to improve the previously developed technique of split laminotomy and moderate enlargement of the spinal canal with preservation of the majority of posterior structures, and to avoid the complications of the classic autologous bone grafting procedure. Methods - A multilevel spinous process splitting and distracting laminotomy technique with complementary spacer insertion between the laminar parts was developed. We used Poly-Ether-Ether-Ketone (PEEK) cages. This improved method was used in five patients to remove malignant intramedullary tumors at the thoracic level. Results - Adequate surgery of the tumors located intramedullary, and permanent decompression of the spinal canal was achieved in all patients using our new modified procedure. The results have been postoperatively confirmed with MRI and CT. The affected spine was the thoracic in all cases. The numbers of split laminae were three to five. Histological results were as follows: four intramedullary astrocytomas, one ependymoma. The ependymoma was completely, while the astrocytomas were only subtotally removed. In all cases heterologous grafts were inserted between the sides of the distracted laminas, to achieve the enlargement of the spinal canal. The mean duration of the whole surgical procedure was 118 minutes (range 91 to 145 minutes). The average follow-up was 11.2 months, with the range from five to 16 months. Upon postoperative neurological follow-up, no complications were revealed related to the newly developed procedure. The postoperative followup CT scans demonstrated bony healing, with a cage between the osteotomized faces. No compression or dislocation of the spacer was seen. Instability was not detected in any of the patients by flexion or extension lateral radiographs. Conclusion - This modification of the split laminotomy and heterologous grafting method fulfills the requirements of other laminotomy techniques. The split laminotomy is suitable for removing intramedullary tumors, and the posterior stabilizing structures of the spine, as the vertebral laminae and the longitudinal musculature are completely prevented. Due to use of allograft the complications of the classic hip bone grafting procedures are avoided. The spacers, inserted between the osteotomized faces, provided permanent decompression of the spinal canal, and bony healing - throughout the spacer - of the splitted vertebral laminae, without iliac graft complications.]