Clinical Neuroscience

The timing of weaning alters the vulnerability to stress-induced gastric erosion in adult rats

LUDMILA Filaretova, LUDMILA Vataeva, ZELENA Dóra

JANUARY 20, 2017

Clinical Neuroscience - 2017;70(01-02)

DOI: https://doi.org/10.18071/isz.70.0025

Background - Weaning is an important period of life and its timing may influence the resilence for later stress. One of the most important stress-related disorder is gastric ulceration. Purpose and methods - Therefore we aimed to investigate the sensitivity of gastric mucosa to cold (at 16°C) water immersion stress (WIS for 3h) in adult (75-day-old) female and male rats after weaning them at different timepoints (at 17, 21, 30, 36 or 42 postnatal days). The connection with stress was studied by comparing control groups to those underwent WIS at the time of weaning and measuring corticosterone levels at the time of collecting the stomach samples. Results - The timing of weaning has strong impact on all studied parameters. Stress-induced erosion development was the smallest in rats weaned at 36-day independently from preconditioning with WIS at weaning, or sex, despite a clear sex-effect on blood corticosterone levels and body weight. WIS at weaning influenced only the body weight in adult rats weaned at 30-day, being higher in stressed than in control groups. There was no clear overall correlation between erosion area and blood corticosterone measures. Conclusions - Taken together our results confirm that the timing of weaning has long-lasting impact on the resiliance of gastric mucosa to ulcerogenic stressful events. In rats the postnatal day 30-36 seems to be optimal for weaning in both sexes as both earlier and later weaning increased vulnerability. Females seems to be more vulnerable to the effect of weaning than males.

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Clinical Neuroscience

Symptom profiles and parental bonding in homicidal versus non-violent male schizophrenia patients

HALMAI Tamás, TÉNYI Tamás, GONDA Xénia

Objective - To compare the intensity and the profile of psychotic symptoms and the characteristics of parental bonding of male schizophrenia patients with a history of homicide and those without a history of violent behaviour. Clinical question - We hypothesized more intense psychotic symptoms, especially positive symptoms as signs of a more severe psychopathology in the background of homicidal behaviour. We also hypothesized a more negatively perceived pattern (less Care more Overprotection) of parental bonding in the case of homicidal schizophrenia patients than in non-violent patients and non-violent healthy controls. Method and subjects - Symptom severity and symptom profiles were assessed with the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale in a group of male schizophrenia patients (n=22) with the history of committed or attempted homicide, and another group (n=19) of male schizophrenia patients without a history of violent behaviour. Care- and Overprotection were assessed using the Parental Bonding Instrument (PBI) in a third group of non-violent healthy controls (n=20), too. Results - Positive, negative and general psychopathology symptoms in the homicidal schizophrenia group were significantly (p<0.005) more severe than in the non-violent schizophrenia group. Non-violent schizophrenia patients scored lower on Care and higher on Overprotection than violent patients and healthy controls. Homicidal schizophrenia patients showed a pattern similar to the one in the healthy control group. Conclusions - It seems imperative to register intense positive psychotic symptoms as predictive markers for later violent behaviour. In the subgroup of male homicidal schizophrenia patients negatively experienced parental bonding does not appear to be major contributing factor to later homicidal behaviour.

Clinical Neuroscience

[Thrombolysis in case of ischemic stroke caused by aortic dissection]

LANTOS Judit, NAGY Albert, HEGEDŰS Zoltán, BIHARI Katalin

[Seldom, an acute aortic dissection can be the etiology of an acute ischemic stroke. The aortic dissection typically presents with severe chest pain, but in pain-free dissection, which ranges between 5-15% of the case, the neurological symptoms can obscure the sypmtos of the dissection. By the statistical data, there are 15-20 similar cases in Hungary in a year. In this study we present the case history of an acute ischemic stroke caused by aortic dissection, which is the first hungarian publication in this topic. A 59-year-old man was addmitted with right-gaze-deviation, acute left-sided weakness, left central facial palsy and dysarthric speech. An acute right side ischemic stroke was diagnosed by physical examination without syptoms of acute aortic dissection. Because, according to the protocol it was not contraindicated, a systemic intravenous thrombolysis was performed. The neurological sypmtoms disappeared and there were no complication or hypodensity on the brain computed tomography (CT). 36 hours after the thrombolysis, the patient become restlessness and hypoxic with back pain, without neurological abnormality. A chest CT was performed because of the suspition of the aortic dissection, and a Stanford-A type dissection was verified. After the acute aortic arch reconstruction the patient died, but there was no bleeding complication at the dissection site caused by the thrombolysis. This case report draws attention to the fact that aortic dissection can cause acute ischemic stroke. Although it is difficult to prove it retrospectively, we think the aortic dissection, without causing any symptoms or complain, had already been present before the stroke. In our opinion both the history of our patient and literature reviews confirms that in acute stroke the thrombolysis had no complication effect on the aortic dissection but ceased the neurological symptoms. If the dissection had been diagnosed before the thrombolysis, the aortic arch reconstruction would have been the first step of the treatment, without thrombolysis. ]

Clinical Neuroscience

The evaluation of the relationship between risk factors and prognosis in intracerebral hemorrhage patients

SONGUL Senadim, MURAT Cabalar, VILDAN Yayla, ANIL Bulut

Objective - Patients were assessed in terms of risk factors, hematoma size and localization, the effects of spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) on mortality and morbidity, and post-stroke depression. Materials and methods - The present study evaluated the demographic data, risk factors, and neurological examinations of 216 ICH patients. The diagnosis, volume, localization, and ventricular extension of the hematomas were determined using computed tomography scans. The mortality rate through the first 30 days was evaluated using ICH score and ICH grading scale. The Modified Rankin Scale (mRS) was used to determine the dependency status and functional recovery of each patient, and the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale was administered to assess the psychosocial status of each patient. Results - The mean age of the patients was 65.3±14.5 years. The most common locations of the ICH lesions were as follows: lobar (28.3%), thalamus (26.4%), basal ganglia (24.0%), cerebellum (13.9%), and brainstem (7.4%). The average hematoma volume was 15.8±23.8 cm3; a ventricular extension of the hemorrhage developed in 34.4% of the patients, a midline shift in 28.7%, and perihematomal edema, as the most frequently occurring complication, in 27.8%. Over the 6-month follow-up period, 57.9% of patients showed a poor prognosis (mRS: ≥3), while 42.1% showed a good prognosis (mRS: <3). The mortality rate over the first 30 days was significantly higher in patients with a low Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score at admission, a large hematoma volume, and ventricular extension of the hemorrhage (p=0.0001). In the poor prognosis group, the presence of moderate depression (39.13%) was significantly higher than in the good prognosis group (p=0.0001). Conclusion - Determination and evaluation of the factors that could influence the prognosis and mortality of patients with ICH is crucial for the achievement of more effective patient management and improved quality of life.

Clinical Neuroscience

Combination of severe facial and cervical vascular malformation with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome: diagnostic and therapeutic approaches

FALUDI Béla, IMRE Marianna, BÜKI András, KOMOLY Sámuel, LUJBER László

The combination of obstructive sleep apnea syndrome and vascular malformation within the head and neck region is a rare condition, and interestingly, only a few cases have recently been published. Propagation of the vascular mass to the larynx and pharynx can cause breathing and swallowing difficulties. Due to these sypmtoms, examination and initiation of appropriate therapy for such patients are indeed challenging. We reviewed the literature available and present our case of a 64 year old woman emphasizing the complaints of sleep apnea syndrome and vascular malformation of the face and neck region. Polygraphic examination detected severe obstructive sleep apnea syndrome. The MR examination of the neck revealed extensive vascular mass narrowing the pharyngo-laryngeal region, thereby causing temporal bone destruction on the right side with intracranial propagation. ENT examination demonstrated significant narrowing of the pharyngeal lumen and the laryngeal aditus caused by multiple hemangiomas. CPAP titration showed the minimalization of the apnea-hypopnea index on the effective pressure level. Regular CPAP usage resulted in diminishing a majority of the patient’s complaints. Our examination clearly demonstrates, obstructive sleep apnea syndrome coupled with significantly obstructing vascular malformation in the head and neck region can be effectively treated safely with a CPAP device, if surgical therapy is not possible. We summarized our findings and the data available in the literature to set up recommendations for the appropriate examination and therapy (including mask fit, etc.) of vascular malformations and hemangiomas causing pharyngo-laryngeal obstruction.

Clinical Neuroscience

[Magnetic resonance imaging in the course of alemtuzumab and teriflunomide therapy]

MIKE Andrea, KINCSES Zsigmond Tamás, VÉCSEI László

[Our work aimed to review the published results of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) obtained in the course of alemtuzumab and teriflunomide therapy in multiplex sclerosis. In multiplex sclerosis MRI sensitively detects subclinical pathological processes, which do not manifest clinically in the early course of the disease, however have substantial significance from the viewpoint of the long-term disease prognosis. MRI has an increasingly important role in the early monitoring of the therapeutic efficacy. In the last 15 years several clinical trials have been conducted with alemtuzumab and teriflunomide in multiple sclerosis providing evidence about the favourable clinical effect of these drugs. MRI images were acquired in these trials as well, and the results published recently in the scientific literature. These MRI results denote the suppression of the disease activity and the neurodegenerative processes, which may imply a favourable effect on the long-term prognosis of the disease. ]

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Clinical Neuroscience

Fluoxetine use is associated with improved survival of patients with COVID-19 pneumonia: A retrospective case-control study

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We aimed to investigate the association between fluoxetine use and the survival of hospitalised coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pneumonia patients. This retrospective case-control study used data extracted from the medical records of adult patients hospitalised with moderate or severe COVID-19 pneumonia at the Uzsoki Teaching Hospital of the Semmelweis University in Budapest, Hungary between 17 March and 22 April 2021. As a part of standard medical treatment, patients received anti-COVID-19 therapies as favipiravir, remdesivir, baricitinib or a combination of these drugs; and 110 of them received 20 mg fluoxetine capsules once daily as an adjuvant medication. Multivariable logistic regression was used to evaluate the association between fluoxetine use and mortality. For excluding a fluoxetine-selection bias potentially influencing our results, we compared baseline prognostic markers in the two groups treated versus not treated with fluoxetine. Out of the 269 participants, 205 (76.2%) survived and 64 (23.8%) died between days 2 and 28 after hospitalisation. Greater age (OR [95% CI] 1.08 [1.05–1.11], p<0.001), radiographic severity based on chest X-ray (OR [95% CI] 2.03 [1.27–3.25], p=0.003) and higher score of shortened National Early Warning Score (sNEWS) (OR [95% CI] 1.20 [1.01-1.43], p=0.04) were associated with higher mortality. Fluoxetine use was associated with an important (70%) decrease of mortality (OR [95% CI] 0.33 [0.16–0.68], p=0.002) compared to the non-fluoxetine group. Age, gender, LDH, CRP, and D-dimer levels, sNEWS, Chest X-ray score did not show statistical difference between the fluoxetine and non-fluoxetine groups supporting the reliability of our finding. Provisional to confirmation in randomised controlled studies, fluoxetine may be a potent treatment increasing the survival for COVID-19 pneumonia.

Clinical Neuroscience

Late simultaneous carcinomatous meningitis, temporal bone infiltrating macro-metastasis and disseminated multi-organ micro-metastases presenting with mono-symptomatic vertigo – a clinico-pathological case reporT

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Although vertigo is one of the most common complaints, intracranial malignant tumors rarely cause sudden asymmetry between the tone of the vestibular peripheries masquerading as a peripheral-like disorder. Here we report a case of simultaneous temporal bone infiltrating macro-metastasis and disseminated multi-organ micro-metastases presenting as acute unilateral vestibular syndrome, due to the reawakening of a primary gastric signet ring cell carcinoma. Purpose – Our objective was to identify those pathophysiological steps that may explain the complex process of tumor reawakening, dissemination. The possible causes of vestibular asymmetry were also traced. A 56-year-old male patient’s interdisciplinary medical data had been retrospectively analyzed. Original clinical and pathological results have been collected and thoroughly reevaluated, then new histological staining and immunohistochemistry methods have been added to the diagnostic pool. During the autopsy the cerebrum and cerebellum was edematous. The apex of the left petrous bone was infiltrated and destructed by a tumor mass of 2x2 cm in size. Histological reexamination of the original gastric resection specimen slides revealed focal submucosal tumorous infiltration with a vascular invasion. By immunohistochemistry mainly single infiltrating tumor cells were observed with Cytokeratin 7 and Vimentin positivity and partial loss of E-cadherin staining. The subsequent histological examination of necropsy tissue specimens confirmed the disseminated, multi-organ microscopic tumorous invasion. Discussion – It has been recently reported that the expression of Vimentin and the loss of E-cadherin is significantly associated with advanced stage, lymph node metastasis, vascular and neural invasion and undifferentiated type with p<0.05 significance. As our patient was middle aged and had no immune-deficiency, the promoting factor of the reawakening of the primary GC malignant disease after a 9-year-long period of dormancy remained undiscovered. The organ-specific tropism explained by the “seed and soil” theory was unexpected, due to rare occurrence of gastric cancer to metastasize in the meninges given that only a minority of these cells would be capable of crossing the blood brain barrier. Patients with past malignancies and new onset of neurological symptoms should alert the physician to central nervous system involvement, and the appropriate, targeted diagnostic and therapeutic work-up should be established immediately. Targeted staining with specific antibodies is recommended. Recent studies on cell lines indicate that metformin strongly inhibits epithelial-mesenchymal transition of gastric cancer cells. Therefore, further studies need to be performed on cases positive for epithelial-mesenchymal transition.

Clinical Neuroscience

Alexithymia is associated with cognitive impairment in patients with Parkinson’s disease

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Clinical Neuroscience

[The role of sleep in the relational memory processes ]

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[A growing body of evidence suggests that sleep plays an essential role in the consolidation of different memory systems, but less is known about the beneficial effect of sleep on relational memory processes and the recognition of emotional facial expressions, however, it is a fundamental cognitive skill in human everyday life. Thus, the study aims to investigate the effect of timing of learning and the role of sleep in relational memory processes. 84 young adults (average age: 22.36 (SD: 3.22), 21 male/63 female) participated in our study, divided into two groups: evening group and morning group indicating the time of learning. We used the face-name task to measure relational memory and facial expression recognition. There were two sessions for both groups: the immediate testing phase and the delayed retesting phase, separated by 24 hours. 84 young adults (average age: 22.36 (SD: 3.22), 21 male/63 female) participated in our study, divided into two groups: evening group and morning group indicating the time of learning. We used the face-name task to measure relational memory and facial expression recognition. There were two sessions for both groups: the immediate testing phase and the delayed retesting phase, separated by 24 hours. Our results suggest that the timing of learning and sleep plays an important role in the stabilizing process of memory representation to resist against forgetting.]

Clinical Neuroscience

[The connection between the socioeconomic status and stroke in Budapest]

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[The well-known gap bet­ween stroke mortality of Eastern and Western Euro­pean countries may reflect the effect of socioeconomic diffe­rences. Such a gap may be present between neighborhoods of different wealth within one city. We set forth to compare age distribution, incidence, case fatality, mortality, and risk factor profile of stroke patients of the poorest (District 8) and wealthiest (District 12) districts of Budapest. We synthesize the results of our former comparative epidemiological investigations focusing on the association of socioeconomic background and features of stroke in two districts of the capital city of Hungary. The “Budapest District 8–12 project” pointed out the younger age of stroke patients of the poorer district, and established that the prevalence of smoking, alcohol-consumption, and untreated hypertension is also higher in District 8. The “Six Years in Two Districts” project involving 4779 patients with a 10-year follow-up revealed higher incidence, case fatality and mortality of stroke in the less wealthy district. The younger patients of the poorer region show higher risk-factor prevalence, die younger and their fatality grows faster during long-term follow-up. The higher prevalence of risk factors and the higher fatality of the younger age groups in the socioeconomically deprived district reflect the higher vulnerability of the population in District 8. The missing link between poverty and stroke outcome seems to be lifestyle risk-factors and lack of adherence to primary preventive efforts. Public health campaigns on stroke prevention should focus on the young generation of socioeconomi­cally deprived neighborhoods. ]