Clinical Neuroscience

[THE SURPRISING DUAL ACTION OF GLUCOCORTICOIDS]

LUDMILA Filaretova, MAKARA Gábor

MARCH 30, 2014

Clinical Neuroscience - 2014;67(03-04)

[Glucocorticoid hormones may have dual action on the stomach: physiological gastroprotective and pathological proulcerogenic one. In physiological conditions, even in acute stress situations, glucocorticoids have an adaptive effect on the stomach and, therefore, are gastroprotective. The findings that we review in this article suggest that glucocorticoids released during acute stress are naturally occurring protective factors that play an important role in maintenance of the gastric mucosal integrity.]

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[EVEN VISITING SCIENTISTS COULD MAKE DISCOVERIES IN MONTREAL]

LÁZÁR György

[This publication summarizes the scientific adventure with Professor Selye, and focuses on the specific effect of rare metal salts on reticuloendothelial functions. Rare earth metal ions markedly affect the functions of cells involved in inflammatory and immunological phenomena. The Kupffer cell blockade induced by GdCl3 is a generally accepted method for investigation of the physiological and pathophysiological roles of Kupffer cells. Potential beneficial effects of macrophage blockade have been demonstrated in different shock states, liver injury and obstructive jaundice.]

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[Although Hans Selye is mostly known for his discovery & development of the stress concept, he also introduced the first physiologically sound, structure-activity classification of steroids that was also based on the chemical structure of steroids in 1943. He not only introduced the names of glucocorticoids & mineralocorticoids but discovered the anti- & pro-inflammatory properties, respectively, of these steroids in animal models. Furthermore, he not only described the first stress-induced gastric ulcers in rats (1936) & characterized the first human ‘stress ulcers’ during the air-raids in London during World War II (1943). Thus, Selye was a much more productive & creative scientist than it is generally considered.]

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[The souvenirs of Hans Selye as a teacher of graduate and post graduate students are presented and discussed. The main aim of his teaching was to orient the student toward importance and originality of findings.]

Clinical Neuroscience

[Validation of the Hungarian MDS-UPDRS: Why do we need a new Parkinson scale?]

HORVÁTH Krisztina, ASCHERMANN Zsuzsanna, ÁCS Péter, BOSNYÁK Edit, DELI Gabriella, PÁL Endre, KÉSMÁRKI Ildikó, HORVÁTH A. Réka, TAKÁCS Katalin, KOMOLY Sámuel, BOKOR Magdolna, RIGÓ Eszter, LAJTOS Júlia, KLIVÉNYI Péter, DIBÓ György, VÉCSEI László, TAKÁTS Annamária, TÓTH Adrián, IMRE Piroska, NAGY Ferenc, HERCEG Mihály, HIDASI Eszter, KOVÁCS Norbert

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[Selye pioneered the stress concept that is ingrained in the vocabulary of daily life. This was originally build on experimental observations that divers noxious agents can trigger a similar triad of endocrine (adrenal enlargement), immune (involution of thymus) and gut (gastric erosion formation) responses as reported in a letter to Nature in 1936. Subsequently, he articulated the underlying mechanisms and hypothesized the existence of a “first mediator” in the hypothalamus able to orchestrate this bodily changes. However he took two generations to identify this mediator. The Nobel Laureate, Roger Guillemin, a former Selye’s PhD student, demonstrated in 1955 the existence of a hypothalamic factor that elicited adrenocorticotropic hormone release from the rat pituitary and named it corticotropin releasing factor (CRF). In 1981, Wylie Vale, a former Guillemin’s Ph Student, characterized CRF as 41 amino acid and cloned the CRF1 and CRF2 receptors. This paves the way to experimental studies establishing that the activation of the CRF signaling pathways in the brain plays a key role in mediating the stress-related endocrine, behavioral, autonomic and visceral responses. The unraveling of the biochemical coding of stress is rooted in Selye legacy continues to have increasing impact on the scientific community.]

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