Clinical Neuroscience

[The role of electrical neuromodulation in the therapy for chronic lower urinary tract dysfunction]


FEBRUARY 20, 2003

Clinical Neuroscience - 2003;56(01-02)

[The electrostimulation techniques may be used as a supplement or an alternative to standard therapy. Electrical therapy for chronic lower tract dysfunction comprises of noninvasive pudendal nerve neuromodulation and invasive sacral nerve stimulation. Short-term functional electrical stimulation seems favourable in selected patients with detrusor hyperreflexia. Sacral nerve stimulation may be a successful treatment option for patients with refractory detrusor overactivity and some forms of urinary retention.]



Further articles in this publication

Clinical Neuroscience

[Operative treatment of pressure sores of the pelvic region in spinal cord-injured patients]


[by either conservative or surgical methods. Shortened healing period and long lasting results can be achieved by surgery. Between 1993 and 2001 the authors performed 64 operations with musculocutaneous or musculo-fasciocutaneous flaps in all cases. All patients healed primary except one, whose 20-year-old pressure sore transformed malignant and gave metastasis. The complication rate was 21.42%, that equals with the data of the literature. Measuring the late postoperative results by follow-up questionnaire, a 9.52% ratio of recurrence was found, which was significantly smaller than data of the literature (19-82%). Authors analyse the causes of their (good) results.]

Clinical Neuroscience


Clinical Neuroscience

[The role of reconstructive surgery for upper limbs in the rehabilitation of tetraplegia (case report)]


[As part of the rehabilitation of tetraplegical patients, movement improving operations have been carried out for more than 30 years. The scant results of the early 70's caused such a standstill and division among professionals, that operations on the upper limbs on tetraplegical patients became questionable. The authors started operating upper limb reconstructions on tetraplegia patients for achieving a basic hand function i.e. keypinch, grasping etc. in 2001. Three cases are quoted and one of them, operated ten months ago is described in details. The postoperative treatment of the other two patients has not finished yet. In 1998, a twenty-three years old girl had her fifth and sixth cervical vertebra broken in a car accident. The rugged break of the fifth vertebral body damaged the spinal chord. After the accident all four limbs became ataxic and a complete numbness occurred distally from the thoracic level of the chest. The patient went through a CV corpectomia, a corpus complementation, a CIV-V dissectomia and a CIV-VII ventrofixation. After the operation the movements of the upper limbs improved but those of the lower limbs did not. Her general condition stabilised after the treatments at the intensive care and the laryngological, the urological and the plastical surgery as well as the complex therapy at the rehabilitation department. She moved around in a wheelchair. After a para-coordinational treatment she was able to lift up small objects, but because of her paralysed bending and stretching finger muscles she was not able to hold heavier objects with her hands. In March 2002 a grip improving operation was carried on her dominant right hand. Twelve weeks after the operation she could lift up a weight of 2 kg and she was able to keypinch and grip with force.]

Clinical Neuroscience

[Unusually located metastatic tumors of the spine]

BAZSÓ Péter, NAGY László

[Metastatic spine tumors are representing a growing number of oncological patients. In this paper the authors would like to focus on a rare type of metastatic spine tumors, the unusually located ones. Since the advent of MRI and with the progress in general oncology this formerly rare tumors became more frequently recognized. Consequently these tumors are causing a new challenge for the oncologists, neurologists and neurosurgeons as well. The aim of the authors with this paper was to raise, especially the neurologists' attention to this emerging problem.]

Clinical Neuroscience

[Changes in the approach and the methods in acute surgical treatment of severe thoraco-lumbar spinal injuries]


[The authors show the changes in the approach and methods concerning the acute surgical treatment of severe thoracolumbar spinal injuries. In the past 15 years, 878 acute surgical treatments have been done with ventral-, dorsal or combined method. The results are evaluated from the point of view of neurological function recovery, bony union, restoration of patients' comfort and complications. Authors discuss the changes of past 15 years regarding the basic ideas of the treatment of spinal injuries, the indications and methods of modern surgical techniques. The use of new surgical methods which are closely connected to the biomechanical characteristics of the injured spine are stressed, as well as the importance of the primary definitive ventral surgical treatment, in the case of a severe thoraco-lumbar spine injury.]

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Clinical Neuroscience



[The author gives an overview on the pathophysiology and management of neurogenic bladder dysfunction and lists the most common bladder dysfunctions observed in various diseases of the nervous system. The cited classifications, principles, and categories follow the current guidelines of WHO and the International Continence Society. The author and his co-workers have been involved in the rehabilitational treatment of patients with neurogenic bladder dysfunction for more than a decade. The review paper is supplemented with illustrations taken from the author's own cases.]

Clinical Neuroscience

[Evidence for the expression of parathyroid hormone 2 receptor in the human brainstem (in English language)]

BAGÓ G. Attila, PALKOVITS Miklós, USDIN B. Ted, SERESS László, DOBOLYI Árpád

[Background and purpose - The parathyroid hormone 2 receptor (PTH2R) is a G protein coupled receptor. Pharmacological and anatomical evidence suggests that the recently identified tuberoinfundibular peptide of 39 residues is, and parathyroid hormone and parathyroid hormone-related peptide are not, its endogenous ligand. Initial functional studies suggest that the PTH2R is involved in the regulation of viscerosensory information processing. As a first step towards clinical applications, herein we describe the presence of the PTH2R in the human brainstem. Material and methods - Total RNA was isolated from postmortem human cortical and brainstem samples for RT-PCR. Good quality RNA, as assessed on formaldehyde gel, was reverse transcribed. The combined cDNA products were used as template in PCR reactions with primer pairs specific for the human PTH2R. In addition, PTH2R immunolabelling was performed on free floating sections of the human medulla oblongata using fluorescent amplification immunochemistry. Results - Specific bands in the RT-PCR experiments and sequencing of PCR products demonstrated the expression of PTH2R mRNA in the human brainstem. A high density of PTH2R-immunoreactive fibers was found in brain regions of the medulla oblongata including the nucleus of the solitary tract, the spinal trigeminal nucleus, and the dorsal reticular nucleus of the medulla. Conclusion - Independent demonstration of the presence of PTH2R mRNA and immunoreactivity supports the specific expression of the PTH2R in the human brainstem. The distribution of PTH2R-immunoreactive fibers in viscerosensory brain regions is similar to that reported in mouse and rat suggesting a similar role of the PTH2R in human as in rodents. This finding will have important implications when experimental data obtained on the function of the TIP39-PTH2R neuromodulator system in rodents are to be utilized in human.]

Clinical Neuroscience

Neuroscience highlights: Main cell types underlying memory and spatial navigation

KRABOTH Zoltán, KÁLMÁN Bernadette

Interest in the hippocampal formation and its role in navigation and memory arose in the second part of the 20th century, at least in part due to the curious case of Henry G. Molaison, who underwent brain surgery for intractable epilepsy. The temporal association observed between the removal of his entorhinal cortex along with a significant part of hippocampus and the developing severe memory deficit inspired scientists to focus on these regions. The subsequent discovery of the so-called place cells in the hippocampus launched the description of many other functional cell types and neuronal networks throughout the Papez-circuit that has a key role in memory processes and spatial information coding (speed, head direction, border, grid, object-vector etc). Each of these cell types has its own unique characteristics, and together they form the so-called “Brain GPS”. The aim of this short survey is to highlight for practicing neurologists the types of cells and neuronal networks that represent the anatomical substrates and physiological correlates of pathological entities affecting the limbic system, especially in the temporal lobe. For that purpose, we survey early discoveries along with the most relevant neuroscience observations from the recent literature. By this brief survey, we highlight main cell types in the hippocampal formation, and describe their roles in spatial navigation and memory processes. In recent decades, an array of new and functionally unique neuron types has been recognized in the hippocampal formation, but likely more remain to be discovered. For a better understanding of the heterogeneous presentations of neurological disorders affecting this anatomical region, insights into the constantly evolving neuroscience behind may be helpful. The public health consequences of diseases that affect memory and spatial navigation are high, and grow as the population ages, prompting scientist to focus on further exploring this brain region.