Clinical Neuroscience

[The "benign" form of multiple sclerosis]


JULY 01, 1963

Clinical Neuroscience - 1963;16(07)

[62 patients with multiple sclerosis are reported to be in the "benign" group of the disease. Cases of each of the three subgroups are described. Methods (palliative care, rehabilitation plan, etc.) are discussed to hope for a favourable outcome: stabilisation of the disease, making it stationary. The need to set up convalescent resorts and rehabilitation centres is stressed. Examples of the former are TB sanatoria and the latter poliomyelitis outpatient clinics.]


  1. Fővárosi István Kórház Ideggyógyászati Osztály



Further articles in this publication

Clinical Neuroscience

[Glioma behaviour in tissue culture III. Comparative study of in vivo irradiated gliomas ]

ZOLTÁN László, PÁLYI Irén, ÁFRA Dénes

[1. We performed a comparative study of four gliomas after first and recurrent surgery. Simultaneous tissue culture of the surgical material was performed. 2. Two patients operated on with glioblastoma multiforme and one with astrocytoma malignum received radiotherapy after the first surgery, whereas one patient operated on with astrocytoma malignum did not receive radiotherapy. 3. Irradiation resulted in a reduction in the ability of tumour cells to grow for longer periods of time in tissue culture, which was already reflected in the degeneration that occurred. The decrease in biological activity of irradiated tumour cells can be considered as a consequence of the radiation effect. 4. In one case, a malignant lesion was observed in non-irradiated tumour tissue after histological processing during recurrent surgery. 5. In one case, the activity of the tumour tissue removed at the first surgery showed a malignant astrocytoma in culture, which predicted a malignant lesion in the tissue removed at the second surgery. ]

Clinical Neuroscience

[Clinical group psychotherapy for neurotics]

HIDAS György

[Group psychotherapy uses a whole with new characteristics, created by the human social relationships and mutual interaction between the patients and the psychotherapist doctor, to heal. The conscious behaviour and psychotherapeutic work of the doctor play a crucial role. Psychotherapeutic groups for neurotic patients in hospital are open, heterogeneous, with 6-8 members Group psychotherapy is not only a therapeutic method but also a diagnostic one, and the development of interpersonal relationships is observed in statu nascendi. The structure of a psychotherapeutic group in a hospital setting is determined by the neurotic tendency factor and the need for addiction. This creates a formation centred around the group leader. A crucial stage of therapy is the transformation of the group structure into a group-centred group. This requires and brings with it the patients' sense of autonomy, active work and a greater sense of responsibility. A psychotherapy group is also a "working group", which works on solving the problems that arise in order to achieve recovery. There is a conflict between the working group and the need for addiction, with the psychotherapeutic doctor as the dynamic point of conflict. The doctor's task is to create a tolerant atmosphere in the group, to establish the modus operandi and to keep the group psychotherapy process moving with his interpretations. An optimal degree of negative or positive emotional tension is required in group psychotherapy. One source of negative tension is the conflict between the patient's need to receive and the doctor's refusal to do so. Therapeutic factors in group psychotherapy are: positive emotions between the doctor and the patient, universalisation, catharsis, reflective reactions, interpretations, intellectual and emotional insight, self-awareness and enrichment of knowledge, counselling, group reality testing. In the course of group psychotherapy, healthy, self-healing forces are mobilised, healthy adaptability increases, a sense of community is extended, and feelings of isolation are reduced. The doctor is involved in the group psychotherapy process in an emotional way. This is necessary in order to help patients adequately, but his perception may be disturbed by his emotions. The participation of an observing physician in a group psychotherapy session is a support and learning experience for the therapist. The results of group psychotherapy are: patients get to know each other better, the patient-physician relationship becomes more intense. The psychotherapeutic atmosphere of the ward is improved by channeling the patients' conflicts with the hospital and with each other. The patients' sense of community is strengthened and their interpersonal relationships improve. There is an opportunity to change the neurotic way of coping. The spontaneous interaction of patients, which often leads to negative effects, is used for healing in hospital through conscious intervention and guidance in group psychotherapy. ]

Clinical Neuroscience

[Data on temporal lobe symptomatology Pick's atrophy ]


[Three cases of Pick's atrophy in which atrophy spread from the primary shrinkage center in temporopolar to T, T, and Tz are described. Individual differences in the further pathway of atrophy were discernible: in case 1, it extended only to the frontal basis, in case 2, it extended additionally to F, and in case 3, it extended, albeit to a small extent, to the whole frontal convexity. In the first two cases, the atrophy was more pronounced on the left side, in the third on the right. The symptoms were partly the same in all three cases according to the common pathological lesions and partly variable from case to case according to the specific pathological lesions and the predominance of laterality. Common symptoms included initial mnestic disruption and subsequent severe dementia associated with bilateral temporal lobe atrophy and personality changes upon spread to the frontal base. Aphasic symptoms are modified not only by the predominance of the lesion on the lesion side, but also by the frontal spread. The aphasia in the period of temporal atrophy is transcortical motor typus; this was accompanied by echolalia in case 2 when the frontal supplementary motor regio was impaired. The "oral tendencies" and hypersexuality in our case 3 are similar to Klüver-Bucy syndrome and are probably related to particularly severe bilateral temporal atrophy.]

Clinical Neuroscience

[Minutes of the meeting]


[The VI. scientific meeting of the Hungarian EEG Society was held in Budapest on 8-9 February 1963. of the VI. meeting of the EEG.]

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Clinical Neuroscience

Atypical presentation of late-onset Sandhoff disease: a case report

SALAMON András , SZPISJAK László , ZÁDORI Dénes, LÉNÁRT István, MARÓTI Zoltán, KALMÁR Tibor , BRIERLEY M. H. Charlotte, DEEGAN B. Patrick , KLIVÉNYI Péter

Sandhoff disease is a rare type of hereditary (autosomal recessive) GM2-gangliosidosis, which is caused by mutation of the HEXB gene. Disruption of the β subunit of the hexosaminidase (Hex) enzyme affects the function of both the Hex-A and Hex-B isoforms. The severity and the age of onset of the disease (infantile or classic; juvenile; adult) depends on the residual activity of the enzyme. The late-onset form is characterized by diverse symptomatology, comprising motor neuron disease, ataxia, tremor, dystonia, psychiatric symptoms and neuropathy. A 36-year-old female patient has been presenting progressive, symmetrical lower limb weakness for 9 years. Detailed neurological examination revealed mild symmetrical weakness in the hip flexors without the involvement of other muscle groups. The patellar reflex was decreased on both sides. Laboratory tests showed no relevant alteration and routine electroencephalography and brain MRI were normal. Nerve conduction studies and electromyography revealed alterations corresponding to sensory neuropathy. Muscle biopsy demonstrated signs of mild neurogenic lesion. Her younger brother (32-year-old) was observed with similar symptoms. Detailed genetic study detected a known pathogenic missense mutation and a 15,088 base pair long known pathogenic deletion in the HEXB gene (NM_000521.4:c.1417G>A; NM_000521:c.-376-5836_669+1473del; double heterozygous state). Segregation analysis and hexosaminidase enzyme assay of the family further confirmed the diagnosis of late-onset Sandhoff disease. The purpose of this case report is to draw attention to the significance of late-onset Sandhoff disease amongst disorders presenting with proximal predominant symmetric lower limb muscle weakness in adulthood.

Journal of Nursing Theory and Practice

[Evaluation of clinical practices among academic nursing students]


[Purpose: Establishing a balance between theoretical and practical training is essential in the training of college nursing students. The aim was to assess the students’ experiences of clinical practice and the problems they indicate in the component, which plays an important role in preparing the training for professional competencies. The study sample consisted of 3rd and 4th grade students (N=96) participating in nursing training at the Faculty of Health Sciences of Semmelweis University. The method of data collection was based on the completion of a quantitative online questionnaire, which also included qualitative elements in the form of three open-ended questions. Among the statements measured on the Likert scale, the balance of theory-practice, the role of participants in education, and the time spent on practical tasks received lower average ranks from both grades. Logistic regression is suitable for estimating the probability of a positive/negative impression of a practice as a combined effect of several explanatory variables. Compared to the results of a previous (2009) study, the problems with field clinical training remain unresolved.]

Clinical Neuroscience

The effect of sniffing Turkish coffee on olfactory disorders in COVID-19 patients: An experimental clinical study


The current study aimed to examine the effect of sniffing Turkish coffee on the sense of smell in COVID-19 patients. This study utilized the experiment-control method. Data were collected using a patient and disease information form and the Connecticut Chemosensory Clinical Research Center (CCCRC) Test. An experimental group of patients sniffed Turkish coffee, and the coffee’s effect on the patients’ sense of smell was examined. All data were analyzed using SPSS version 25 (IBM). Of the patients in the experimental group, 25% had moderate hyposmia, 58.3% had severe hyposmia, and 16.7% had anosmia prior to sniffing Turkish coffee. After sniffing the Turkish coffee, 13.3% of these patients regained their ability to smell normally, while 18.3% had mild hyposmia, 45% had moderate hyposmia, 6.7% had severe hyposmia, and 16.7% had anosmia. There was no difference in the control group between first and second measurement. COVID-19 patients who sniffed Turkish coffee intermittently regained some of their sense of smell for one hour. Turkish coffee is cheap, fragrant, widely available, and easy to access. Therefore, results of this study suggest that it may be recommended for treating olfactory disorder in COVID-19 patients.

Clinical Neuroscience

Neuroscience highlights: Main cell types underlying memory and spatial navigation

KRABOTH Zoltán, KÁLMÁN Bernadette

Interest in the hippocampal formation and its role in navigation and memory arose in the second part of the 20th century, at least in part due to the curious case of Henry G. Molaison, who underwent brain surgery for intractable epilepsy. The temporal association observed between the removal of his entorhinal cortex along with a significant part of hippocampus and the developing severe memory deficit inspired scientists to focus on these regions. The subsequent discovery of the so-called place cells in the hippocampus launched the description of many other functional cell types and neuronal networks throughout the Papez-circuit that has a key role in memory processes and spatial information coding (speed, head direction, border, grid, object-vector etc). Each of these cell types has its own unique characteristics, and together they form the so-called “Brain GPS”. The aim of this short survey is to highlight for practicing neurologists the types of cells and neuronal networks that represent the anatomical substrates and physiological correlates of pathological entities affecting the limbic system, especially in the temporal lobe. For that purpose, we survey early discoveries along with the most relevant neuroscience observations from the recent literature. By this brief survey, we highlight main cell types in the hippocampal formation, and describe their roles in spatial navigation and memory processes. In recent decades, an array of new and functionally unique neuron types has been recognized in the hippocampal formation, but likely more remain to be discovered. For a better understanding of the heterogeneous presentations of neurological disorders affecting this anatomical region, insights into the constantly evolving neuroscience behind may be helpful. The public health consequences of diseases that affect memory and spatial navigation are high, and grow as the population ages, prompting scientist to focus on further exploring this brain region.

Clinical Neuroscience

[Tension type headache and its treatment possibilities]

ERTSEY Csaba, MAGYAR Máté, GYÜRE Tamás, BALOGH Eszter, BOZSIK György

[Tension type headache, the most common type of primary headaches, affects approximately 80% of the population. Mainly because of its high prevalence, the socio-economic consequences of tension type headache are significant. The pain in tension type headache is usually bilateral, mild to moderate, is of a pressing or tightening quality, and is not accompanied by other symptoms. Patients with frequent or daily occurrence of tension type headache may experience significant distress because of the condition. The two main therapeutic avenues of tension type headache are acute and prophylactic treatment. Simple or combined analgesics are the mainstay of acute treatment. Prophylactic treatment is needed in case of attacks that are frequent and/or difficult to treat. The first drugs of choice as preventatives of tension type headache are tricyclic antidepressants, with a special focus on amitriptyline, the efficacy of which having been documented in multiple double-blind, placebo-controlled studies. Among other antidepressants, the efficacy of mirtazapine and venlafaxine has been documented. There is weaker evidence about the efficacy of gabapentine, topiramate, and tizanidin. Non-pharmacological prophylactic methods of tension type headache with a documented efficacy include certain types of psychotherapy and acupuncture. ]