Clinical Neuroscience

[Society of Környey’s Fellows]

CZOPF József

MARCH 10, 2005

Clinical Neuroscience - 2005;58(03-04)



Further articles in this publication

Clinical Neuroscience

[Clinical neurosciences for efficient treatment - 2nd Live Issue of Clinical Neuroscience/ Ideggyógyászati Szemle]


Clinical Neuroscience



[Pathologically, Binswanger’s disease is subcortical periventricular leucoencephalopathy sparing the U fibers. Clinically it is characterised by executive dysfunction, gait problems, urinary incontinence, pseudobulbar palsy, mood disturbances and dementia. The pathomechanism of Binswanger’s disease is unclear. It is hypothesized that it results from an ischemic-hypoxic injury of the periventricular white matter, which, in turn, can be caused by a sclerotic elongation of the medullary arteries, widening of the perivascular spaces or decreased brain perfusion due to hypotension or heart disease. The symptoms of Binswanger’s disease frequently overlap with those of normal pressure hydrocephalus, vascular parkinsonism and Alzheimer’s disease. A diagnostic criterion of Binswanger’s disease is radiologically demonstrated leukoaraiosis, which, on the other hand, is not equivalent with Binswanger’s disease. A good clinical response after lumbar puncture or shunt implantation might lead to confusion with normal pressure hydrocephalus, which further complicates the clinical diagnosis. It is likely that among the above mentioned disorders there are a number of transitional forms and overlaps, which might be explained by the common pathomechanism of disturbance in cerebrospinal fluid circulation.]

Clinical Neuroscience

[Supplementary sensory-motor seizures - symptomatology, etiology, and surgical management with illustrative case reports]

HALÁSZ Péter, JUHOS Vera, ERÕSS Loránd, TÓTH Szabolcs, BALOGH Attila, GYÖRGY Ilona, BARSI Péter, KELEMEN Anna, BARCS Gábor

[In the past decade, owing to the advance of epilepsy surgery, growing knowledge has accumulated on the role of the supplementary motor area, described by Penfield and coworkers in the early fifties, in movement regulation and on the characteristics of seizures involving this area. In the Hungarian neurological literature this topic - despite its neurophysiological and practical clinical importance - has been hardly touched. The authors, based on their own experience obtained from surgeries performed within the framework of the "Co-operative Epilepsy Surgery Program", describe the electrophysiological features of this area, its role in movement regulation and the symptoms of epileptic seizures stemmed from or spread onto this area. Using cases as illustrations, they demonstrate the reasoning and various algorithms of the multidisciplinary examination necessary to explore the seizure onset zone and the pathways of seizure spread. Details of the surgical solution are also described.]

Clinical Neuroscience

[Primary prevention program of the Hungarian Spine Society - Part I. Scientific background of the posture correction exercise scheme]

GARDI Zsuzsa, FESZTHAMMER Artúrné, DARABOSNÉ Tim Irma, TÓTHNÉ Steinhausz Viktória, SOMHEGYI Annamária, VARGA Péter Pál

[The primary prevention program of the Hungarian Spine Society aims to increase awareness of the need to develop and automatically maintain a biomechanically correct posture for all school children. The biomechanically correct posture is a dynamic balance based on a correct middle position of the pelvis and on muscle balance. In this position three important anatomical points - the left and right anterior superior iliac spines and the upper medial point of the pubic bone - form one frontal plane. From side-view the imaginary weight median of the body crosses the 2nd to 5th lumbar and the 2nd to 5th cervical vertebral bodies. When the muscles involved in posture are in balance, their strength and flexibility are just appropriate for the almost continuous work required against gravity. In case of static and/or dynamic under- or overload tonic muscles become shortened, and phasic muscles become stretched, and are no longer able to work optimally. Since many muscles and muscle parts that are involved in normal posture maintenance are not satisfactorily challenged in regular physical exercises and sport activities, the preventive exercise scheme of the Hungarian Spine Society aimed to involve these rarely used muscles in special strengthening and stretching exercises. The scheme is based on 12 test exercises that assess the strength and flexibility of postural muscles. A person who is able to do all test exercises correctly has no problem with his or her muscle balance. In order to counteract the harm caused by sedentary lifestyle already in childhood, regular use of this posture correction scheme in physical education starting from preschool throughout the school-years is recommended for all children.]

Clinical Neuroscience

[Application of the Multiple Sclerosis Functional Composite in Debrecen]


[Introduction - The Multiple Sclerosis Functional Composite (MSFC) has been recommended by the National Multiple Sclerosis Society as a new clinical outcome measure. It is based on measurements in three clinical dimensions: leg function/ambulation (timed 25-foot walk), arm function (9-hole peg test), and cognitive function (paced auditory serial addition test). Scores on component measures are converted to standard scores (Z-scores) that reflect patient performance. This method has not yet been introduced into routine clinical practice. Patients and method - MSFC calculation was applied to 17 patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (age mean: 37.4±10.8 years; duration of the disease: 5.5±4.9 years, EDSS: 2.7±1.4) seen at the neuroimmunological outpatient clinic to evaluate its usefulness and its correlation with the traditionally applied Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) and with patient-reported quality of life. Fifteen patients received immunomodulatory treatment (interferon beta and glatiramer acetate). MSFC and EDSS were measured at 0, 3, 6, 9, 12, 18 months, and questionnaires on quality of life were filled in by the patients at 0, 6, 12, 18 months of follow- up. Results - The prospective study confirmed a strong correlation between EDSS and MSFC (Spearman correlation test, p=0.03, 0.004, 0.002, 0.004, 0.0008, 0.002; R=-0.54, -0.66, -0.68, -0.65, -0.73, -0.69) in multiple sclerosis. The MSFC was more sensitive to clinical changes than EDSS. The extent of changes on the two scales correlated only after 18 months (p<0.005, R=-0.65). The arm/hand function was the most sensitive measure for disease progression. There was no correlation between the quality of life and either of the two other clinical parameters. Conclusion - MSFC is a simple method, suitable for followup of multiple sclerosis patients in everyday clinical practice.]

All articles in the issue

Related contents

Clinical Neuroscience

Evaluation of anxiety, depression and marital relationships in patients with migraine


Aim - The aim of this study was to evaluate the frequency and characteristics of attacks in patients with migraine, to determine the effects of anxiety or depressive symptoms, and to evaluate the marital relationships of patients with migraine. Method - Thirty patients who were admitted to the neurology outpatient clinic of our hospital between July 2018 and October 2018 and were diagnosed with migraine according to the 2013 International Headache Society (IHS) diagnostic criteria were included in this cross-sectional study. Age, sex, headache frequency and severity, depressive traits, marital satisfaction and anxiety status were examined. We used the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), Maudsley Marital Questionnaire (MMQ) and Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) for measuring relevant parameters. Results - The mean severity of migraine pain according to VAS scale was 6.93 ± 1.41 and the mean number of migraine attacks was 4.50 ± 4.24. The mean BDI score of the patients was 12.66 ± 8.98, the mean MMQ-M score was 19.80 ± 12.52, the mean MMQ-S score was 13.20 ± 9.53, the mean STAI-state score was 39.93 ± 10.87 and the mean STAI-trait score was 45.73 ± 8.96. No significant correlation was found between age, number of migraine attacks, migraine duration, migraine headache intensity, and BDI, STAI and MMQ scores (p>0.05). But there was a positive correlation between MMQ-S and scores obtained from the BDI and STAI-state scales (p<0.05). Conclusion - In this study more than half of the migraine patients had mild, moderate or severe depression. A positive correlation was found between sexual dissatisfaction and scale scores of depression and anxiety.

Clinical Neuroscience

[Account on the scientific meeting of Környey Society in 2010. Part 2.]

Hungarian Radiology

[Scientific conference of Transylvanian Society and Museum]


Hypertension and nephrology

[The 27th Great Assembly of the Hungarian Society of Nephrology]

LAM Extra for General Practicioners



[Various medical associations issue different recommendations for the prevention and treatment of vitamin D deficiency. These significant differences are partly explained by the different definition of normal vitamin D level and the use of completely different mathematical models to predict the increase in vitamin D level as a response to therapy. According to the Institute of Medicine (IOM), the target vitamin D level is 20 ng/ml, whereas the Endocrine Society (ES) recommends 30 ng/m as the miminum target value. According to the ES, a 1 ng/ml increase of vitamin D level can be reached by a daily intake of 100 NE, while the IOM recommends 3.6 ng/ml. Moreover, the IOM states that the effect of therapy on serum level is nonlinear. These differences show that the ES and IOM have different views on the risk of adverse effects. The IOM recommends 400 IU vitamin D daily for children younger than 1 year, 800 IU for those above 70 years and 600 IU/per day for everyone else. The ES recommend 400-1000 IU daily for all infants and 1500- 2000 IU for adults. Screening, however, is not recommended by either society. To decrease uncertainty concerning the side effects of higher-dose vitamin D treatment, it is important to understand, use and support the function of the pharmacovigilance system of the pharmaceutical industry that manufactures and markets various (prescription, over-the-counter) preparations. This is what the author aims to highlight in the second part of this article. Using this system, both the doctor and the patient can help support and accept the justification of higher-dose vitamin D therapy.]