Clinical Neuroscience



MARCH 30, 2014

Clinical Neuroscience - 2014;67(03-04)

[Science assumed in recent decades an increasingly important role in the regulatory field. Regulatory science is now regarded as established specific brunch of science. A disturbing anomaly, the emergence of fraudulent data is of major concern both in the field of research and in the regulation. Hans Selye’s work on stress, on several forms of pluricausal diseases and on other experimental models came into the focus of interest on the occasion of the Selye Symposium - 2013 held in May 2013 at the Hungarian Academy of Sciences in Budapest.]



Further articles in this publication

Clinical Neuroscience


LÁZÁR György

[This publication summarizes the scientific adventure with Professor Selye, and focuses on the specific effect of rare metal salts on reticuloendothelial functions. Rare earth metal ions markedly affect the functions of cells involved in inflammatory and immunological phenomena. The Kupffer cell blockade induced by GdCl3 is a generally accepted method for investigation of the physiological and pathophysiological roles of Kupffer cells. Potential beneficial effects of macrophage blockade have been demonstrated in different shock states, liver injury and obstructive jaundice.]

Clinical Neuroscience


SZABÓ Sándor

[Although Hans Selye is mostly known for his discovery & development of the stress concept, he also introduced the first physiologically sound, structure-activity classification of steroids that was also based on the chemical structure of steroids in 1943. He not only introduced the names of glucocorticoids & mineralocorticoids but discovered the anti- & pro-inflammatory properties, respectively, of these steroids in animal models. Furthermore, he not only described the first stress-induced gastric ulcers in rats (1936) & characterized the first human ‘stress ulcers’ during the air-raids in London during World War II (1943). Thus, Selye was a much more productive & creative scientist than it is generally considered.]

Clinical Neuroscience

[Validation of the Hungarian MDS-UPDRS: Why do we need a new Parkinson scale?]

HORVÁTH Krisztina, ASCHERMANN Zsuzsanna, ÁCS Péter, BOSNYÁK Edit, DELI Gabriella, PÁL Endre, KÉSMÁRKI Ildikó, HORVÁTH A. Réka, TAKÁCS Katalin, KOMOLY Sámuel, BOKOR Magdolna, RIGÓ Eszter, LAJTOS Júlia, KLIVÉNYI Péter, DIBÓ György, VÉCSEI László, TAKÁTS Annamária, TÓTH Adrián, IMRE Piroska, NAGY Ferenc, HERCEG Mihály, HIDASI Eszter, KOVÁCS Norbert

[Background - The Movement Disorder Society-sponsored revision of the Unified Parkinson’s Disease Rating Scale (MDS-UPDRS) has been published in 2008 as the successor of the original UPDRS. The MDS-UPDRS organizing team developed guidelines for the development of official non- English translations consisting of four steps: translation/back-translation, cognitive pretesting, large field testing, and clinimetric analysis. The aim of this paper was to introduce the new MDS-UPDRS and its validation process into Hungarian. Methods - Two independent groups of neurologists translated the text of the MDS-UPDRS into Hungarian and subsequently back-translated into English. After the review of the back-translated English version by the MDS-UPDRS translation administration team, cognitive pretesting was conducted with ten patients. Based on the results of the initial cognitive pretesting, another round was conducted. For the large field testing phase, the Hungarian official working draft version of MDS-UPDRS was tested with 357 patients with Parkinson’s disease (PD). Confirmatory factor analyses (CFA) determined whether the factor structure for the English-language MDS-UPDRS could be confirmed in data collected using the Hungarian Official Draft Version. To become an official translation, the Comparative Fit Index (CFI) had to be ≥0.90 compared to the English-language version. Results - For all four parts of the Hungarian MDS-UPDRS, the CFI was ≥0.94. Conclusion - The overall factor structure of the Hungarian version was consistent with that of the English version based on the high CFIs for all the four parts of the MDSUPDRS in the CFA; therefore, this version was designated as the ‘OFFICIAL HUNGARIAN VERSION OF THE MDSUPDRS.’]

Clinical Neuroscience


GIULIO Gabbiani

[The souvenirs of Hans Selye as a teacher of graduate and post graduate students are presented and discussed. The main aim of his teaching was to orient the student toward importance and originality of findings.]

Clinical Neuroscience


TACHÉ Yvette

[Selye pioneered the stress concept that is ingrained in the vocabulary of daily life. This was originally build on experimental observations that divers noxious agents can trigger a similar triad of endocrine (adrenal enlargement), immune (involution of thymus) and gut (gastric erosion formation) responses as reported in a letter to Nature in 1936. Subsequently, he articulated the underlying mechanisms and hypothesized the existence of a “first mediator” in the hypothalamus able to orchestrate this bodily changes. However he took two generations to identify this mediator. The Nobel Laureate, Roger Guillemin, a former Selye’s PhD student, demonstrated in 1955 the existence of a hypothalamic factor that elicited adrenocorticotropic hormone release from the rat pituitary and named it corticotropin releasing factor (CRF). In 1981, Wylie Vale, a former Guillemin’s Ph Student, characterized CRF as 41 amino acid and cloned the CRF1 and CRF2 receptors. This paves the way to experimental studies establishing that the activation of the CRF signaling pathways in the brain plays a key role in mediating the stress-related endocrine, behavioral, autonomic and visceral responses. The unraveling of the biochemical coding of stress is rooted in Selye legacy continues to have increasing impact on the scientific community.]

All articles in the issue

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Lege Artis Medicinae

[The effect of chronic stress on defense mechanisms chronic inflammation and carcinogenesis]


[During stress, the activation of the hypothalamus- pituitary-adrenal axis and the sympathetic, sensory nervous system leads to an increased production of glucocorticoids, catecholamines and other active peptides. The specific receptors on immunocompetent and tissue cells for glucocorticoid, corticotropin-releasing hormone and histamine, substance-P, norepinephrine, calcitonin gene-related peptide can modify the cytokine production of macrophages, lymphocytes and tissue cells. Local hormonal effects have a role in the degranulation of mast cells and thus in histamine release and neurogenic inflammation. Long-term, chronic inflammations promote carcinogenesis, in which the tumourassociated macrophages have an important role. Carcinogenesis is associated with disturbed cooperation between the neuronal immune and endocrine systems.]

Clinical Neuroscience


DUNAI Magdolna

[The relationship between stress and mental illness has been extensively studied and there is a growing consensus that the occurrence of mental illness rather depends on a combination of factors than is caused by stressful external events. Significant hypothalamus pituitary adrenal axis abnormalities were observed among others in major depressive disorder and bipolar disorder. In both disorders, the extent of change in cortisol level was related to the severity of illness and to cognitive changes. Exogenous use of synthetic steroids also frequently resulted in severe psychiatric symptoms. In conclusion changes in the level of steroid hormones may cause impairments in the brain.]

Lege Artis Medicinae

[Neuroendocrine background of atherosclerosis and cardiovascular damages in durable stress]


[Chronic stress is associated with increased levels of cortisol and catecholamines as well as with an enhanced activity of the sympathico-sensory nervous system. These neuroendocrine events influence both directly and indirectly the lipid and glucose metabolism as well as inflammatory immune reactions. Stress effects directly cause vascular damage and atherosclerosis via the renin-angiotensin system (RAS). Besides RAS, activities of monocytes/macrophages and the sympathico-sensory nervous system lead to local cardiovascular inflammation and cell hypertrophy. Transactivation between G-protein coupled adrenoceptors and tyrosine kinase receptors as well as the switching between β1- and β2- adrenergic receptors play an important role in the development of cardiac hypertrophy and heart failure. In all chronic neuroendocrine diseases that are associated with increased activity of the sympathetic nervous system, the development of cardiovascular damages needs to be considered.]

Journal of Nursing Theory and Practice

[Comparative analysis of job and life satisfaction among theatre nurses in Hungary and Germany]


[The aim of the study: The objective of the study was to assess and compare job and life satisfaction affected by workplace problems, stress, rewards, success and social support. We analyzed the coping strategies applied by the employees to solves the above problems. Material and method: The anonymous data collection was carried out in October, 2015 by applying AVEM and an own-edited socio-demographic questionnaire among theatre nurses from Hungarian and German clinics. Results: The employees evaluated stressful situations and problems differently in the two groups examined. Job satisfaction was equally important for both groups, but it affected life satisfaction of the Hungarian employees to greater extent. The stress management of the Hungarian employees was more effective in spite of the fact that German nurses used more coping strategies. Social support had a positive effect on overcoming the workplace problems in both groups. Conclusions: Job satisfaction of the nurses has a beneficial effect on their life satisfaction. The ability to divide work and private life and stress management are different among the nurses. Job satisfaction can be improved by workplace health promotion programs.]

Lege Artis Medicinae

[Applying musical tools in healing children]


[The aim of the study is drawing the attention to the possibilities of applying musical tools in healing children. After doing research in main medical databases (PubMed, Web of Science, Medline) some research works were discovered and harmonized in which the researchers give proof of the effectiveness of music therapies implemented in therapeutic circumstances and by proper experts on medical fields. The study focuses on the following topics: applying music for reducing stress caused by medical interventions and hospitalization, treating speech disturbances, improving communication and social abilities of autistic children, improving capabilities of people suffering from visual and hearing impairment, providing help during anaesthesia, stimulating different parts of the brain in children suffering from PDOC (Prolonged Disorder of Consciousness), improving capabilities of children living with disabilities and helping creating harmonic relationship between children, their parents and the healing staff. ]