Clinical Neuroscience

[Rare angioproliferative tumors mimicking aggressive spinal hemangioma with epidural expansion]

KULCSÁR Zsolt, VERES Róbert, HANZÉLY Zoltán, BERENTEI Zsolt, MAROSFŐI Miklós, NYÁRY István, SZIKORA István

JANUARY 30, 2012

Clinical Neuroscience - 2012;65(01-02)

[Background and purpose - We present two cases of angio-proliferative tumors that were misdiagnosed and treated as typical hemangiomas with epidural expansion. Materials and methods - Two middle-aged women presented with symptoms and radiological signs characteristic for aggressive hemangioma with epidural expansion. In the first case preoperative embolization and decompressive surgery with open transpedicular vertebroplasty was performed. Within less than a year, epidural recurrence of the tumor prompted for radical excision and corpectomy. The diagnosis after the histological studies and the further clinical evolution was metastasizing leiomyomatosis. No further recurrence occured during the next 6 years. In the second case percutaneous vertebroplasty was performed and complicated by epidural polymethyl-methacrylcate (PMMA) leakage, requiring urgent decompressive surgery. Histological study of the lesion raised the possibility of myopericytoma. This was confirmed 16 months later when complete vertebrectomy was performed due to severe epidural propagation of the recurring tumor. No further recurrence occurred in next the two years. Conclusions - Rare angio-proliferative tumors, like benign metastasizing leiomyoma and myopericytoma radiologically may resemble aggressive vertebral hemangiomas of the spine. Unlike hemangiomas, such tumors require radical removal due to their likely recurrence. As imaging studies may not be able to completely exclude such pathologies, bone biopsy and thorough histopathological studies are warranted prior to the therapeutic decision.]

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[Depression is frequently observed together with neurological disorders. Moreover this connection is bidirectional in the case of several neurological disorders, as depression can be either a comorbide syndrome or also a risk factor of them. Neurobiological background of depression involves neuroanatomical structures, their interconnected networks, disturbances of neurotransmitters, neurohormonal, neuroimmunological and neurotrophic changes, genetic background. Disfunction of these systems also plays a role in the pathogenesis of comorbid depression of neurological disorders. Interactions and clinical aspects of biological factors involved in the pathogenesis of depression in dementias, Parkinson’s disease, cerebrovascular disorders and epilepsy are discussed further. Depression as a result of neurobiological factors responsible for both neurological and psychiatric consequencies of these disorders, are often atypical as a clinical manifestation, however chracteristic for the particular neurological disorder. Evaluation of the biological backgound and clinical features of depression in neurological disorders makes the complex neuropsychiatric approach of these disorders possible.]

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[The validation of the hungarian version of the Dimensional Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale]

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[Background - The Obsessive-Compulsive disorder (OCD) has a complex phenotype, which can be summarized by using a few consistent and temporally stable symptom dimensions. The dimensional approach derived from the systematic factor analytic studies of OCD symptoms. In 2006, a new psychometric scale was created by M.C. Rosario-Campos and her colleague, the Dimensional Yale- Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale (DY-BOCS). This scale measures the presence and severity of obsessive-compulsive (OC) symptoms within six distinct dimensions. The Hungarian translation of the test and preliminary results were published in 2009. Purpose - The objective of this recent study was two folded: on one hand, our goal was to validate the Hungarian version of the DY-BOCS on a larger sample size. On the other hand, we wanted to publish our results gained by the Hungarian version of the test in English. Methods - We assessed 30 Hungarian patients diagnosed with OCD by DSM-IV. Reliability and validity of the expert and of the self-report were estimated. Results - Self-report and expert ratings were highly correlated. The global DY-BOCS score was well correlated with the total Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale score. The internal validity of the symptom dimensions and the global severity score were high. Divergent validity was also good. Conclusion - These results indicate that the Hungarian version of the DY-BOCS is a reliable and valid clinical tool.]

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[A very rare case of gliosarcoma of the pineal region with cerebellar metastasis is presented. A few cases of glioblastoma and fibrosarcoma have already been published however there was no reported case with gliosarcoma at the pineal region even with cerebellar metastases.]

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[Comment on the article of Dániel Bereczki et al. “The carrier model of neurology in Hungary: A proposal for the solution until 2020”]

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[Vertebroplasty is a therapeutic image-guided procedure, consisting of an injection of acrylic cement through a bone biopsy needle into a vertebral body. Main indication for vertebroplasty is painful vertebral body compression fracture due to osteoporosis. The procedure is an efficient mean with high succes in pain release and prevention of further collapse of the treated vertebrae; however, the technique does not allow to realign the spine. Kyphoplasty was designed to adress the kyphotic deformitiy. It involves the percutaneous placement of an inflatable bone tamp into a vertebral body (VB). Restoration of VB height and kyphosis correction is achieved by inflation of the tamp with contrast material liquid. After deflation a cavitiy is created that eases the cement application. The most modern way of guidance in spinal surgery is neuronavigation - the use of frameless stereotaxy. The system reformats patient-specific CT images acquired prior surgery, performs image fusion with intraoperative plain X-ray. Before the operation, the surgeon may create surgical plan and simulate advancement of a virtual instrument along one or more surgical trajectories. During surgery, the system tracks the position of specialized surgical instruments. All three modalities mentioned above have been applied in the treatment of our patient suffered from multiple osteoporotic vertebral body compression fractures. Using kyphoplasty an almost total VB height restoration could be achieved. The pain relief was more than 50% after both operation.]

Clinical Neuroscience

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[Purpose - Percutaenous Vertebroplasty (PVP) is effective in alleviating pain and facilitating early mobilization following vertebral compression fractures. The relatively high risk of extravertebral leakage due to uncontrolled delivery of low viscosity bone cement is an inherent limitation of the technique. The aim of this research is to investigate the ability of controlled cement delivery in decreasing the rate of such complications by applying radiofrequency heating to regulate cement viscosity. Method and material - Thirty two vetebrae were treated in 28 patients as part of an Ethics Committee approved multicenter clinical trial using RadioFreqency assisted Percutaenous Vertebral Augmentation (RF-PVA) technique. This technique is injecting low viscosity polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) bone cement using a pressure controlled hydraulic pump and applying radiofrequency heating to increase cement viscosity prior to entering the vertebral body. All patients were screened for any cement leakage by X-ray and CT scan. The intensity of pain was recorded on a Visual Analog Scale (VAS) and the level of physical activiy on the Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) prior to, one day, one month and three months following procedure. Results - All procedures were technically successful. There were no clinical complication, intraspinal or intraforaminal cement leakage. In nine cases (29%) a small amount of PMMA entered the intervertebral space through the broken end plate. Intensity of pain by VAS was reduced from a mean of 7.0 to 2.5 and physical inactivity dropped on the ODI from 52% to 23% three months following treatment. Conclusion - In this small series controlled cement injection using RF-PVA was capable of preventing clinically hazardous extravertebral cement leakage while achieving outcomes similar to that of conventional vertebroplasty.]