Clinical Neuroscience

[Pharmaco-EEG investigation on sedative effect of antiallergic drugs. Setastin is a non-sedative antihistamina]

RAJNA Péter1, VERES Judit1

SEPTEMBER 20, 1993

Clinical Neuroscience - 1993;46(09-10)

[Effect of setastine on pharmaco-EEG was investigated in a double blind placebo controlled study in ten healthy volunteers. Changes caused by setastine were compared with those of two referent antihistamine drugs (chloropyramine and hismanal) having great differences in their sedative side effect. The themporo-occipital alpha per theta ratio was the most sensitive EEG marker in differentiating the two referent drugs. The EEG effect showed by setastine was very similar to that to hismanal and opposite to that of chloropyramine. In addition an increase of the total power and the power of beta was also measured. The latter changes might refer to an inherent EEG effect of setastine. EEG changes of setastine cannot be evaluated as signs of hypovigilance and the similarity of EEG effect of hismanal and setastine also supports the non-sedative nature of setastine estabilished by clinical studies. The pharmaco-EEG method utilized gives possibility for an objective investigation of psychotropic side effects of the particular drugs. ]

AFFILIATIONS

  1. Semmelweis Orvostudományi Egyetem Psychiátriai és Psychoterápiás Klinika

COMMENTS

0 comments

Further articles in this publication

Clinical Neuroscience

[Efficacy of cinolazepam on insomnia generated under shift-work conditions]

KÖVES Péter

[The efficacy of cinolazepam (a benzodiazepine with middle half life time and light pharmacological potential) on insomnia generated under shift-work conditions was investigated, and shown to be an efficent hypnotic. Cinolazepam (daytime dose 20 mg, night dose 40 mg) improved significantly both sleep and awakening quality: there were no hangover effects, drug provoked intrasleep or early morning insomnia. During the time cinolazepam was administered drug tolerance was not observed. The structure of cinolazepam-induced sleep could be characterised by shortened sleep latency, increase of deep slow wave sleep, improvment of sleep continuity and unchange of REM sleep parameters both during night- and daytime.]

Clinical Neuroscience

[Observation of embolic events during carotis constructive surgery]

RÓZSA András, ENZT László, JÁRÁNYI Zsuzsa

[The changes of middle cerebral artery circulation during carotid artery surgery in 65 patients were monitored, and the observed embolic events are discussed. Of the 65 patients, 37 were operated with shunt protection (group A) and 28 without (group B). In 31 of all cases 55 embolic events were noted. In 22 of the group A patients 37 embolic events were observed, one of them occured during the declamping of the external caruiid circulation. Eighteen emboli were observed in 9 of the Group B cases. There were embolic events in 5 cases due to external declamping. All the above mentioned embolic events occured without postoperative clinical sings.]

Clinical Neuroscience

[Experiences with carotid-doppler examinations on patients with arterial bypass operation on the lower extremities]

OLÁH László, FÜLESDI Béla, VALIKOVICS Atilla, CSIBA László, OLVASZTÓ Sándor, BÁNFI Csaba, KOZLOVSZKI Bertalan

[Carotis-Doppler examinations were performed on 83 patients with severe, obliterative disease of the arteries of the lower extremities and on 96 age-matched controls without signs and symptoms. In the group with obliterative arterial disease, severe or moderate stenosis of the carotid arteries was found in 20 and 40% of the patients, respectively, whereas in the control group the proportion of moderate carotid-stenosis was 2% and no case of severe stenosis was found. The role of risk factors was also studied. Based on their results the authors suggest, that because patients with obliterative disease on the arteries of the lower extremities have higher risk for stenosis, ultrasound investigations and regular follow up of the carotid arteries are needed.]

Clinical Neuroscience

[Brachioradial syndrome: superficial radial neuropathy]

KISS Gábor

[Damage of the superficial branch of the radial nerve represents a rare, and rarely recognized, mononeuropathy. The first three cases in the Hungarian literature are presented. The essential role of electrodiagnosis in detecting of the disease is stressed. Special attention should be paid to avoid any lesion which might result from improper patient-care.]

Clinical Neuroscience

[Multiple cerebral and spinal tumors as a manifestation of neurofibromatosis]

BARÁTH Barna, KRENÁCS László, BODOSI Mihály

[Details are given of an 18-year-old boy suffering from multiple intracranial and intraspinal tumours as manifestations of central form of neurofibromatosis. Meningioma of the left convexity, and meningioma of the left occipital region spreading into the supra- and infratentorial compartment were removed together with the left acoustic neurinoma. Intramedullary ependymoma of the lower cervical region indicated the need for a further operation. Neither the asymptomatic mass of the right sphenoid wing nor the multiple caudal tumours were excised. The genetic, differential diagnostic and therapeutic problems are discussed on the basis of the literature.]

All articles in the issue

Related contents

Clinical Neuroscience

Fluoxetine use is associated with improved survival of patients with COVID-19 pneumonia: A retrospective case-control study

NÉMETH Klára Zsófia, SZÛCS Anna , VITRAI József , JUHÁSZ Dóra , NÉMETH Pál János , HOLLÓ András

We aimed to investigate the association between fluoxetine use and the survival of hospitalised coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pneumonia patients. This retrospective case-control study used data extracted from the medical records of adult patients hospitalised with moderate or severe COVID-19 pneumonia at the Uzsoki Teaching Hospital of the Semmelweis University in Budapest, Hungary between 17 March and 22 April 2021. As a part of standard medical treatment, patients received anti-COVID-19 therapies as favipiravir, remdesivir, baricitinib or a combination of these drugs; and 110 of them received 20 mg fluoxetine capsules once daily as an adjuvant medication. Multivariable logistic regression was used to evaluate the association between fluoxetine use and mortality. For excluding a fluoxetine-selection bias potentially influencing our results, we compared baseline prognostic markers in the two groups treated versus not treated with fluoxetine. Out of the 269 participants, 205 (76.2%) survived and 64 (23.8%) died between days 2 and 28 after hospitalisation. Greater age (OR [95% CI] 1.08 [1.05–1.11], p<0.001), radiographic severity based on chest X-ray (OR [95% CI] 2.03 [1.27–3.25], p=0.003) and higher score of shortened National Early Warning Score (sNEWS) (OR [95% CI] 1.20 [1.01-1.43], p=0.04) were associated with higher mortality. Fluoxetine use was associated with an important (70%) decrease of mortality (OR [95% CI] 0.33 [0.16–0.68], p=0.002) compared to the non-fluoxetine group. Age, gender, LDH, CRP, and D-dimer levels, sNEWS, Chest X-ray score did not show statistical difference between the fluoxetine and non-fluoxetine groups supporting the reliability of our finding. Provisional to confirmation in randomised controlled studies, fluoxetine may be a potent treatment increasing the survival for COVID-19 pneumonia.

Clinical Neuroscience

Cases of inborn errors of metabolism diagnosed in children with autism

CAKAR Emel Nafiye, YILMAZBAS Pınar

Autism spectrum disorder is a neurodevelopmental disorder with a heterogeneous presentation, the etiology of which is not clearly elucidated. In recent years, comorbidity has become more evident with the increase in the frequency of autism and diagnostic possibilities of inborn errors of metabolism. One hundred and seventy-nine patients with diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder who presented to the Pediatric Metabolism outpatient clinic between 01/September/2018-29/February/2020 constituted the study population. The personal information, routine and specific metabolic tests of the patients were analyzed retrospectively. Out of the 3261 patients who presented to our outpatient clinic, 179 (5.48%) were diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder and were included in the study. As a result of specific metabolic examinations performed, 6 (3.3%) patients were diagnosed with inborn errors of metabolism. Two of our patients were diagnosed with classical phenylketonuria, two with classical homocystinuria, one with mucopolysaccharidosis type 3D (Sanfilippo syndrome) and one with 3-methylchrotonyl Co-A carboxylase deficiency. Inborn errors of metabolism may rarely present with autism spectrum disorder symptoms. Careful evaluation of the history, physical examination and additional findings in patients diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder will guide the clinician in the decision-making process and chose the appropriate specific metabolic investigation. An underlying inborn errors of metabolism may be a treatable cause of autism.

Clinical Neuroscience

Alexithymia is associated with cognitive impairment in patients with Parkinson’s disease

SENGUL Yildizhan, KOCAK Müge, CORAKCI Zeynep, SENGUL Serdar Hakan, USTUN Ismet

Cognitive dysfunction (CD) is a common non-motor symptom of Parkinson’s disease (PD). Alexithy­mia is a still poorly understood neuropsychiatric feature of PD. Cognitive impairment (especially visuospatial dysfunction and executive dysfunction) and alexithymia share com­mon pathology of neuroanatomical structures. We hypo­thesized that there must be a correlation between CD and alexithymia levels considering this relationship of neuroanatomy. Objective – The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between alexithymia and neurocognitive function in patients with PD. Thirty-five patients with PD were included in this study. The Toronto Alexithymia Scale–20 (TAS-20), Geriatric Depression Inventory (GDI) and a detailed neuropsychological evaluation were performed. Higher TAS-20 scores were negatively correlated with Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS) similarities test score (r =-0.71, p value 0.02), clock drawing test (CDT) scores (r=-0.72, p=0.02) and verbal fluency (VF) (r=-0.77, p<0.01). Difficulty identifying feelings subscale score was negatively correlated with CDT scores (r=-0.74, p=0.02), VF scores (r=-0.66, p=0.04), visual memory immediate recall (r=-0.74, p=0.01). VF scores were also correlated with difficulty describing feelings (DDF) scores (r=-0.66, p=0.04). There was a reverse relationship bet­ween WAIS similarities and DDF scores (r=-0.70, p=0.02), and externally oriented-thinking (r=-0.77,p<0.01). Executive function Z score was correlated with the mean TAS-20 score (r=-62, p=0.03) and DDF subscale score (r=-0.70, p=0.01) Alexithymia was found to be associated with poorer performance on visuospatial and executive function test results. We also found that alexithymia was significantly correlated with depressive symptoms. Presence of alexithymia should therefore warn the clinicians for co-existing CD.

Clinical Neuroscience

[The role of sleep in the relational memory processes ]

CSÁBI Eszter, ZÁMBÓ Ágnes, PROKECZ Lídia

[A growing body of evidence suggests that sleep plays an essential role in the consolidation of different memory systems, but less is known about the beneficial effect of sleep on relational memory processes and the recognition of emotional facial expressions, however, it is a fundamental cognitive skill in human everyday life. Thus, the study aims to investigate the effect of timing of learning and the role of sleep in relational memory processes. 84 young adults (average age: 22.36 (SD: 3.22), 21 male/63 female) participated in our study, divided into two groups: evening group and morning group indicating the time of learning. We used the face-name task to measure relational memory and facial expression recognition. There were two sessions for both groups: the immediate testing phase and the delayed retesting phase, separated by 24 hours. 84 young adults (average age: 22.36 (SD: 3.22), 21 male/63 female) participated in our study, divided into two groups: evening group and morning group indicating the time of learning. We used the face-name task to measure relational memory and facial expression recognition. There were two sessions for both groups: the immediate testing phase and the delayed retesting phase, separated by 24 hours. Our results suggest that the timing of learning and sleep plays an important role in the stabilizing process of memory representation to resist against forgetting.]

Clinical Neuroscience

Evaluation of the effectiveness of transforaminal epidural steroid injection in far lateral lumbar disc herniations

EVRAN Sevket, KATAR Salim

Far lateral lumbar disc herniations (FLDH) consist approximately 0.7-12% of all lumbar disc herniations. Compared to the more common central and paramedian lumbar disc herniations, they cause more severe and persistent radicular pain due to direct compression of the nerve root and dorsal root ganglion. In patients who do not respond to conservative treatments such as medical treatment and physical therapy, and have not developed neurological deficits, it is difficult to decide on surgical treatment because of the nerve root damage and spinal instability risk due to disruption of facet joint integrity. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the effect of transforaminal epidural steroid injection (TFESI) on the improvement of both pain control and functional capacity in patients with FLDH. A total of 37 patients who had radicular pain caused by far lateral disc herniation which is visible in their lumbar magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan, had no neurological deficit and did not respond to conservative treatment, were included the study. TFESI was applied to patients by preganglionic approach. Pre-treatment Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) and Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) scores of the patients were compared with the 3rd week, 3rd month and 6th month scores after the procedure. The mean initial VAS score was 8.63 ± 0.55, while it was 3.84 ± 1.66, 5.09 ± 0.85, 4.56 ± 1.66 at the 3rd week, 3rd month and 6th month controls, respectively. This decrease in the VAS score was found statistically significant (p = 0.001). ODI score with baseline mean value of 52.38 ± 6.84 was found to be 18.56 ± 4.95 at the 3rd week, 37.41 ± 14.1 at the 3rd month and 34.88 ± 14.33 at the 6th month. This downtrend of pa­tient’s ODI scores was found statistically significant (p = 0.001). This study has demonstrated that TFESI is an effective method for gaining increased functional capacity and pain control in the treatment of patients who are not suitable for surgical treatment with radicular complaints due to far lateral lumbar disc hernia.