Clinical Neuroscience

Patient characteristics and the effects of intravenous immunoglobulin in patients with Guillain-Barre syndrome


NOVEMBER 30, 2016

Clinical Neuroscience - 2016;69(11-12)


Purpose - The purpose of this study is to determine the diagnosis- and treatment-related characteristics in Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) and to evaluate the effects of early intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg) treatment on disability, mortality and prognosis. Materials and methods - Adult patients who were diagnosed with GBS in our clinic between January 2000 and January 2014 were retrospectively scanned. While the patients undergoing IVIg treatment were included in the study, the other neuropathic diseases were excluded. Patients were divided into two groups based on the administration time of the IVIg treatment; Group 1 (<7 days) and Group 2 (≥ 7 days) Group 1 consisted of patients undergoing IVIg treatment within 7 days after presentation of symptoms and Group 2 consisted of patients undergoing IVIg treatment on and after 7th day following presentation of symptoms. The scores from Hughes Functional Grading Scale (HFGS) on admission and one month laterwere recorded in all patients in order to evaluate the disability and prognosis in terms of demographic and clinical laboratory characteristics. Results - In this study, 49 GBS patients were included (31 patients in Group 1 and 18 patients in Group 2). Demyelinating form of GBS was determined in 22 (44.8%) patients.). While there was no difference between both groups (p: 0.288, p: 0.762, p: 0.693 respectively) in terms of intensive care and rehabilitation requirement and progression, only 2 patients in Group 1 died. While HFGS mean score on admission in all the patient groups was 3.27±0.974, their HFGS mean score at month 1 was 2.53±1.226. There was no difference between the groups in terms of HFGS mean scores on admission and at month 1. Within each groups, there was a significant improvement between initial (on admission) HFGS scores and HFGS scores acquired at month 1. Conclusion - In this study, demyelinating form was more frequent than axonal form. A total of 2 g/kg dose of IVIg treatment administered for 5 days as a standard in GBS patients ensured a significant improvement on both disability and early and late administration and early administration of the treatment does not lead to any difference in intensive care unit and rehabilitation requirements.


  1. Sakarya Üniversitesi Eğitim ve Araştırma Hastanesi; Adapazarı, Turkey



Further articles in this publication

Clinical Neuroscience

[Ketamine administration in case of severe, therapy resistant depressed patient, case report]

MORVAI Szabolcs, NAGY Attila István, BÁLINT-SZÖLLŐSI Adrienn, MÓRÉ E Csaba, BERECZ Roland, FRECSKA Ede

[Objective - In our case report we present the treatment of a female patient suffering from therapy resistant depression. This procedure is not in practice in Hungary at present, the aim of our work to reproduce the findigs of international studies in domestic circumstances. Matter - Major depression is a common, chronic and severe mental disorder, with 16.2% lifetime prevalence. Many international randomized, placebo controlled trials found administration of ketamine infusion effective in depressed patients. Methods - Since ketamine is an anesthetic agent, its administration was performed in the post-operative monitoring room of our hospital operating-room, supervised by an anesthesiologist. According to formerly published data, a dose of 0.5 mg/kg of body weight was administered intravenously in 40 minutes by perfusor. The drug was administered in a same manner fifteen days later. Subject - The patient was admitted to our inpatient ward with severe depression. During two months of combined antidepressant therapy her condition has not improved significantly. Approval for off label drug indication was granted with urgency by the National Institute of Quality and Organizational Development in Healthcare and Medicines. Results - During the two treatments the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale 21 items rating scale score was reduced to 8 from the baseline 28, the Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale score was reduced to 6 from 25, Beck Depression Inventory was reduced to 9 from 20. Upon administration of the drug no severe adverse event was detected, the mild dissociative state related to ketamine was ceased in a short period of time. Discussion - With administration of 0.5 mg/kg ketamine the authors managed to achieve rapid improvement in a therapy resistant depressed patient, without permanent side effects. Our future plan is to repeat the use of the drug within a double-blind, placebo controlled trial in order to prove its efficacy in hospital settings. ]

Clinical Neuroscience

[Recommendation for treatment options in advanced Parkinson's disease]

ASCHERMANN Zsuzsanna, DIBÓ György, KLIVÉNYI Péter, KOVÁCS Norbert, KOVÁCS Tibor, TAKÁTS Annamária, GERTRÚD Tamás, VARANNAI Lajos

[The treatment of advanced Parkinson’s disease is challenging for both physicians and caregivers. The device-aided therapies need expertise and dedicated hospital centers. In this summary we have concluded the available data and recommendation for the treatment options in advanced Parkinson’s disease and adopt them to the daily care in Hungary. ]

Clinical Neuroscience

[The role of zonisamide in the treatment of women with epilepsy]


[The antiepileptic drugs can effect fertility, development of gynecological diseases and occurence of sexual problems. They can cause a number of “cosmetic” problem and also influence the selection of safe contraceptive method. Many antiepileptic drugs can cause congenital malformations or affect the new-born child’s psychomotor and cognitive development, therefore during pregnancy should be treated with extreme caution in women with epilepsy. Most types of epilepsies accompany the patient through their whole life. Women spend almost the third of their lives after menopause and - due to the formation of associated diseases as well - this period is also special. According to the 2013 recommendation of International League Epilepsy (ILAE), zonisamide is one of the first-line antiepileptic drugs in focal epilepsy. In my review I discuss women’s epilepsy in the viewpoint of the application of zonisamid. ]

Clinical Neuroscience

Vitreous humor diffusion measurements from diffusionweighted imaging in idiopathic intracranial hypertension

CAGLI Bekir, TUNCEL Alpaslan Sedat, YILMAZ Erdem, TEKATAS Aslan, ERMIS Veli

Background - Idiopathic intracranial hypertension is a disease with uncertain etiology. It is not caused by an intracranial mass lesion or hydrocephalus and is characterized by abnormal elevation of intracranial pressure and normal composition of the cerebrospinal fluid. The orbita and intracranial area are closely related anatomically. Elevated intracranial pressure can be transmitted to the orbita through the cerebrospinal fluid around the optic nerve sheath changes at the vitreous humor on diffusion-weighted imaging have not been systemically studied in idiopathic intracranial hypertension. Purpose - The purpose of this study was to investigate diffusion changes in the vitreous humor in patients with intracranial hypertension. Methods - In this retrospective study, 25 patients with papilledema and who had been definitively diagnosed with idiopathic intracranial hypertension and 20 control participants were evaluated. Control subjects and patients were scanned with a 1.5 Tesla magnetic resonance imaging. Apparent diffusion coefficient maps were obtained from diffusion-weighted imaging with a b value of 1000 s/mm2 and apparent diffusion coefficient values were automatically calculated. These images were obtained by a radiologist who was blinded to the details of the study for center of each vitreous humor and the body of lateral ventricle. The mean apparent diffusion coefficient values of each vitreous humor and the body of the lateral ventricle were calculated for each group (control group and patients) and quantitative comparisons were performed. Results - There were no statistically significant differences in mean apparent diffusion coefficient values of the right vitreous humor, left vitreous humor and the body of the lateral ventricle between the patients with idiopathic intracranial hypertension and the control group (p=0.766, p=0.864, p=0.576, respectively). Discussion - Vitreous humor is a closed system and has no direct relationship with the cerebrospinal fluid or cerebral tissue and although morphological changes occur in the orbital structures, including the optic disk and optic nerve in idiopathic intracranial hypertension, the indirect effects of these changes on the vitreous humor may be too subtle to measure. Conclusion - We did not find a significant difference in the mean apparent diffusion coefficient value of the vitreous humor between the patients with idiopathic intracranial hypertension and the control group. However, future studies will be necessary to determine if changes in the vitreous humor can be used to diagnose intracranial hypertension.

Clinical Neuroscience

Unilateral thalamic infarction causing downward gaze palsy in a patient with uncorrected tetralogy of fallot: a case report


Introduction - Tetralogy of Fallot (TOF) is the most common form of cyanotic congenital heart disease (CHD). Adults with surgically uncorrected forms of this condition are extremely rare, since operation is recommended in childhood to prevent cyanosis. Cyanotic CHD increases the risk of thromboembolic events. An endothelial dysfunction caused by chronic hypoxia and shear stress due to rheological alterations with a platelet dysfunction appear to be the explanation behind this finding. Paramedian thalamic infarction causing vertical gaze palsy without midbrain involvement is an infrequent finding. We report here a rare case of a patient with untreated TOF, who suffered a left-sided unilateral thalamic infarction presenting as downward gaze palsy and diplopia. Case presentation - A 44-year-old women complained of sudden onset diplopia and vertigo. Neurological examination revealed a downward gaze palsy with other symptoms related to a vertebrobasilar territory circulatory disturbance. The MRI scan revealed an acute infarction, 8 mm in diameter in the left medial thalamic region without midbrain involvement. Discussion - Adults with uncorrected forms of TOF are extremely uncommon, and descriptions of stroke in these patients are therefore rarities. We set out to give a concise survey of the literature regarding TOF patients with stroke. Conclusion - We present a rare case of unilateral thalamic infarction causing downward gaze palsy in an adult patient with uncorrected TOF. Cyanotic CHD is regarded as one of the risk factors of stroke. Besides other pathologic conditions, ischaemic stroke at an early age should raise the suspicion of a cardioembolic origin and, in rare cases, might result from cyanotic CHD.

All articles in the issue

Related contents

Clinical Neuroscience

Alexithymia is associated with cognitive impairment in patients with Parkinson’s disease

SENGUL Yildizhan, KOCAK Müge, CORAKCI Zeynep, SENGUL Serdar Hakan, USTUN Ismet

Cognitive dysfunction (CD) is a common non-motor symptom of Parkinson’s disease (PD). Alexithy­mia is a still poorly understood neuropsychiatric feature of PD. Cognitive impairment (especially visuospatial dysfunction and executive dysfunction) and alexithymia share com­mon pathology of neuroanatomical structures. We hypo­thesized that there must be a correlation between CD and alexithymia levels considering this relationship of neuroanatomy. Objective – The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between alexithymia and neurocognitive function in patients with PD. Thirty-five patients with PD were included in this study. The Toronto Alexithymia Scale–20 (TAS-20), Geriatric Depression Inventory (GDI) and a detailed neuropsychological evaluation were performed. Higher TAS-20 scores were negatively correlated with Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS) similarities test score (r =-0.71, p value 0.02), clock drawing test (CDT) scores (r=-0.72, p=0.02) and verbal fluency (VF) (r=-0.77, p<0.01). Difficulty identifying feelings subscale score was negatively correlated with CDT scores (r=-0.74, p=0.02), VF scores (r=-0.66, p=0.04), visual memory immediate recall (r=-0.74, p=0.01). VF scores were also correlated with difficulty describing feelings (DDF) scores (r=-0.66, p=0.04). There was a reverse relationship bet­ween WAIS similarities and DDF scores (r=-0.70, p=0.02), and externally oriented-thinking (r=-0.77,p<0.01). Executive function Z score was correlated with the mean TAS-20 score (r=-62, p=0.03) and DDF subscale score (r=-0.70, p=0.01) Alexithymia was found to be associated with poorer performance on visuospatial and executive function test results. We also found that alexithymia was significantly correlated with depressive symptoms. Presence of alexithymia should therefore warn the clinicians for co-existing CD.

Clinical Neuroscience

Late simultaneous carcinomatous meningitis, temporal bone infiltrating macro-metastasis and disseminated multi-organ micro-metastases presenting with mono-symptomatic vertigo – a clinico-pathological case reporT

JARABIN András János, KLIVÉNYI Péter, TISZLAVICZ László, MOLNÁR Anna Fiona, GION Katalin, FÖLDESI Imre, KISS Geza Jozsef, ROVÓ László, BELLA Zsolt

Although vertigo is one of the most common complaints, intracranial malignant tumors rarely cause sudden asymmetry between the tone of the vestibular peripheries masquerading as a peripheral-like disorder. Here we report a case of simultaneous temporal bone infiltrating macro-metastasis and disseminated multi-organ micro-metastases presenting as acute unilateral vestibular syndrome, due to the reawakening of a primary gastric signet ring cell carcinoma. Purpose – Our objective was to identify those pathophysiological steps that may explain the complex process of tumor reawakening, dissemination. The possible causes of vestibular asymmetry were also traced. A 56-year-old male patient’s interdisciplinary medical data had been retrospectively analyzed. Original clinical and pathological results have been collected and thoroughly reevaluated, then new histological staining and immunohistochemistry methods have been added to the diagnostic pool. During the autopsy the cerebrum and cerebellum was edematous. The apex of the left petrous bone was infiltrated and destructed by a tumor mass of 2x2 cm in size. Histological reexamination of the original gastric resection specimen slides revealed focal submucosal tumorous infiltration with a vascular invasion. By immunohistochemistry mainly single infiltrating tumor cells were observed with Cytokeratin 7 and Vimentin positivity and partial loss of E-cadherin staining. The subsequent histological examination of necropsy tissue specimens confirmed the disseminated, multi-organ microscopic tumorous invasion. Discussion – It has been recently reported that the expression of Vimentin and the loss of E-cadherin is significantly associated with advanced stage, lymph node metastasis, vascular and neural invasion and undifferentiated type with p<0.05 significance. As our patient was middle aged and had no immune-deficiency, the promoting factor of the reawakening of the primary GC malignant disease after a 9-year-long period of dormancy remained undiscovered. The organ-specific tropism explained by the “seed and soil” theory was unexpected, due to rare occurrence of gastric cancer to metastasize in the meninges given that only a minority of these cells would be capable of crossing the blood brain barrier. Patients with past malignancies and new onset of neurological symptoms should alert the physician to central nervous system involvement, and the appropriate, targeted diagnostic and therapeutic work-up should be established immediately. Targeted staining with specific antibodies is recommended. Recent studies on cell lines indicate that metformin strongly inhibits epithelial-mesenchymal transition of gastric cancer cells. Therefore, further studies need to be performed on cases positive for epithelial-mesenchymal transition.

Hypertension and nephrology

[About the care of patients with hyperuricaemia and gout]

[This consensus document is intended to provide guidance for the effective and efficient treatment of asymptomatic individuals with high uric acid levels and gout patients.]

Clinical Neuroscience

[What happens to vertiginous population after emission from the Emergency Department?]

MAIHOUB Stefani, MOLNÁR András, CSIKÓS András, KANIZSAI Péter, TAMÁS László, SZIRMAI Ágnes

[Background – Dizziness is one of the most frequent complaints when a patient is searching for medical care and resolution. This can be a problematic presentation in the emergency department, both from a diagnostic and a management standpoint. Purpose – The aim of our study is to clarify what happens to patients after leaving the emergency department. Methods – 879 patients were examined at the Semmel­weis University Emergency Department with vertigo and dizziness. We sent a questionnaire to these patients and we had 308 completed papers back (110 male, 198 female patients, mean age 61.8 ± 12.31 SD), which we further analyzed. Results – Based on the emergency department diagnosis we had the following results: central vestibular lesion (n = 71), dizziness or giddiness (n = 64) and BPPV (n = 51) were among the most frequent diagnosis. Clarification of the final post-examination diagnosis took several days (28.8%), and weeks (24.2%). It was also noticed that 24.02% of this population never received a proper diagnosis. Among the population only 80 patients (25.8%) got proper diagnosis of their complaints, which was supported by qualitative statistical analysis (Cohen Kappa test) result (κ = 0.560). Discussion – The correlation between our emergency department diagnosis and final diagnosis given to patients is low, a phenomenon that is also observable in other countries. Therefore, patient follow-up is an important issue, including the importance of neurotology and possibly neurological examination. Conclusion – Emergency diagnosis of vertigo is a great challenge, but despite of difficulties the targeted and quick case history and exact examination can evaluate the central or peripheral cause of the balance disorder. Therefore, to prevent declination of the quality of life the importance of further investigation is high.]

Clinical Neuroscience

[The role of sleep in the relational memory processes ]

CSÁBI Eszter, ZÁMBÓ Ágnes, PROKECZ Lídia

[A growing body of evidence suggests that sleep plays an essential role in the consolidation of different memory systems, but less is known about the beneficial effect of sleep on relational memory processes and the recognition of emotional facial expressions, however, it is a fundamental cognitive skill in human everyday life. Thus, the study aims to investigate the effect of timing of learning and the role of sleep in relational memory processes. 84 young adults (average age: 22.36 (SD: 3.22), 21 male/63 female) participated in our study, divided into two groups: evening group and morning group indicating the time of learning. We used the face-name task to measure relational memory and facial expression recognition. There were two sessions for both groups: the immediate testing phase and the delayed retesting phase, separated by 24 hours. 84 young adults (average age: 22.36 (SD: 3.22), 21 male/63 female) participated in our study, divided into two groups: evening group and morning group indicating the time of learning. We used the face-name task to measure relational memory and facial expression recognition. There were two sessions for both groups: the immediate testing phase and the delayed retesting phase, separated by 24 hours. Our results suggest that the timing of learning and sleep plays an important role in the stabilizing process of memory representation to resist against forgetting.]