Clinical Neuroscience

[Modern pneumography in childhood]

PRAICZ Ervin1, ZÉNÁSY József1

APRIL 01, 1960

Clinical Neuroscience - 1960;13(04)

[Authors report their experiences with positive pressure pneumography in children. Clinical observations on the compensation of hypertension are made. They describe a fractionated PEG and venticulography methodology. Finally, a summary of the indications for contrast studies is presented in an attempt to define the place of modern studies in paediatric neurosurgery.]


  1. Országos Idegsebészeti Tudományos Intézet



Further articles in this publication

Clinical Neuroscience

[Experiences and conclusions from using Hirepin]


[The use of Chlorpromazine and Reserpine in psychiatric practice has become common in recent years. The efficacy of these drugs is considered to be at least equivalent to that of existing treatments. More recently, the use of Chlorpromazine and Reserpine in combination has become widespread. The tachycardia, obstipation and dry mouth effects of Chlorpromazine are well counterbalanced by the bradycardic, salivator and bowel motility-enhancing effects of Reserpine, and their psychic effect is synergistic (Deniker, 12). The literature on chlorpromazine and reserpine is almost incomprehensible: Deniker lists 315 works on the subject in his report to the 1957 Zurich Congress (12), and Kleinsorge and Rösner list 1867 in their 1958 monograph (25). Here, I would like to deal with Chlorpromazine and Reserpine (hereafter Chl. and R.) and one of the side effects of the combination of the two and one of the ways to avoid them, in the context of a new Hungarian drug combination, Hirepin.]

Clinical Neuroscience

[Double ruptured pituitary aneurysm]

POTONDI András, GÁBOR István

[Aneurysm of the a. comm. ant. ruptured twice. The fatal second rupture followed the first 1% years later. At the site of the old rupture, the scar was histologically detected in the aneurysm wall. The intima around the fresh rupture was necrotic. Brief literature review. ]

Clinical Neuroscience

[Adventitial sarcoma ]


[The author describes a case of adventitial sarcoma and discusses the issue of primary cerebral arterial sarcomas in depth. He concludes that the histogenetically hypothesized division of this tumour group into adventitial, perithelial and reticulum cell sarcoma types is valid. On the basis of histological features, adventitial and reticulum sarcomas can be definitely differentiated, while perithelial sarcomas are divided into two groups according to the interpretation of the term 'perithelial'. In Bailey's interpretation, cases classified as perithelial sarcomas represent a distinct type, whereas in Hanberry's interpretation, cases classified as perithelial can be identified with adventitial sarcomas. The author's subtle karyological observations support the fibroblastic genesis of adventitial sarcoma hypothesized by Környey.]

All articles in the issue

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Lege Artis Medicinae

[Diagnosis and treatment of microvascular coronary heart disease. Specialities of conditions in Hungary]


[Invasive investigations show that in two-thirds of patients the myocardial ischaemia persists without obstructive coronary disease and any other heart conditions (INOCA). The underlying cause may be microvascular dysfunction (CMD) with consecutive microvascular coronary disease (MVD) and microvascular or epicardial vasospastic angina (MVA). The modern practice of clinical cardiology while using the developed non-invasive cardiac imaging permits exact measuring of the coronary flow with its characteristic indices. All of these improve the diagnosing of CMD-induced myocardial ischemia and provide opportunity to determine primary MVD cases. Since the recognition and treatment of MVD is significantly underrep­resented in the Hungarian medical care, the primary stable microvascular angina (MVA) is described in detail below with its modern invasive and non-invasive differential diagnosis and treatment, concerning especially its frequency provoked by high blood pressure and female coronary heart diseases. There are highlighted all recommended diagnostic procedures available under domestic conditions.]

Clinical Neuroscience

TikTok and tics: the possible role of social media in the exacerbation of tics during the COVID lockdown

NAGY Péter , CSERHÁTI Helga , ROSDY Beáta , BODÓ Tímea, HEGYI Márta , SZAMOSÚJVÁRI Judit , FOGARASI Joseph Dominic , FOGARASI András

Over the past year, many cases with newly onset or significantly exacerbated tic disorders were observed worldwide, where some aspects of the clinical presentation or the symptomatology were atypical for established tic diagnoses. Our purpose was to describe the atypical cases and raise relevant diagnostic issues. Consecutive cases with atypical tic presentations were documented. Five atypical tic cases are described. These cases shared some common characteristics, most notably the fact that all of them had been exposed to online presentation of ticking behaviour on social media platforms prior to the de novo development or exacerbation of their tics. Even though the order of events suggests causality and therefore the diagnosis of a functional tic disorder, unambiguous criteria for classifying atypical tics as functional symptoms are lacking. Differentiating neurodevelopmental and functional tics in childhood is currently problematic. Based on the currently unresolved issues in differential diagnosis, the importance of watchful waiting and behavioural interventions is highlighted to avoid unwarranted pharmacotherapy.

Clinical Neuroscience

[Consensus statement of the Hungarian Clinical Neurogenic Society about the therapy of adult SMA patients]

BOCZÁN Judit, KLIVÉNYI Péter, KÁLMÁN Bernadette, SZÉLL Márta, KARCAGI Veronika, ZÁDORI Dénes, MOLNÁR Mária Judit

[Background – Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is an autosomal recessive, progressive neuromuscular disorder resulting in a loss of lower motoneurons. Recently, new disease-modifying treatments (two drugs for splicing modification of SMN2 and one for SMN1 gene replacement) have become available. Purpose – The new drugs change the progression of SMA with neonatal and childhood onset. Increasing amount of data are available about the effects of these drugs in adult patients with SMA. In this article, we summarize the available data of new SMA therapies in adult patients. Methods – Members of the Executive Committee of the Hungarian Clinical Neurogenetic Society surveyed the literature for palliative treatments, randomized controlled trials, and retrospective and prospective studies using disease modifying therapies in adult patients with SMA. Patients – We evaluated the outcomes of studies focused on treatments of adult patients mainly with SMA II and III. In this paper, we present our consensus statement in nine points covering palliative care, technical, medical and safety considerations, patient selection, and long-term monitoring of adult patients with SMA. This consensus statement aims to support the most efficient management of adult patients with SMA, and provides information about treatment efficacy and safety to be considered during personalized therapy. It also highlights open questions needed to be answered in future. Using this recommendation in clinical practice can result in optimization of therapy.]

Clinical Neuroscience

[Effective therapy in highly active pediatric multiple sclerosis ]

MERÔ Gabriella, MÓSER Judit, LIPTAI Zoltán, DIÓSZEGHY Péter, BESSENYEI Mónika, CSÉPÁNY Tünde

[Multiple sclerosis (MS) is typically a disease of young adults. Childhood MS can be defined in patients under 18 years of age, although some authors set the limit un­der the age of 16 formerly known as “early-onset multiple sclerosis” or “juvenile multiple sclerosis”, seen in 3-5% of all MS patients. Nowadays, owing to ever-evolving, better diagnostic tools and well-traced, strictly defined diagnostic criteria, childhood MS is showing an increasing incidence worldwide (0.05-2.85/100 000). MS is characterized by recurrent episodes of the central nervous system with demyelination separated in space and time. In childhood almost exclusively the relapsing-remitting (RR) type of MS occurs. Based on experience in adults, the goal in the pediatric population is also the early diagnosis, to initiate adequate DMT as soon as possible and to achieve symptom relief and good quality of life. Based on efficacy and safety studies in the adult population, inter­feron β-1a and glatiramer acetate were first approved by the FDA and EMA for the treatment of childhood MS also. The increased relapse rate and rapid progression of childhood MS and unfavorable therapeutic response to nearly 45% of the first DMT necessitated the testing of more effective and second-line drugs in the population under 18 years of age (PARADIGMS, CONNECT). Although natalizumab was reported to be effective and well-tolerated in highly active RRMS in childhood, evidence based studies were not yet available when our patients’ treatment started. In this article, we report on the successful treatment of three active RRMS patients with individually authorized off-label use of natalizumab.]

Lege Artis Medicinae

Psychoneuroimmunology and the embodied mind

SZABÓ Attila

One of the major philosophical aspirations in contemporary consciousness research is to find a framework of explanation that could successfully address the problem of mind-body relations. Descartes is often regarded as the father of dualism in modern philosophy of mind. Phenomenology and embodiment may dissolve the problem of dualism in the waters of the experiential features of the life-world and the subject. Recent findings in psychoneuroimmunology have shown that somato-psychic mechanisms exist through which bodily stimuli are translated into neuropsychological events resulting in alterations in certain behavioral patterns. These may as well include changes in the qualitative features of the lived body (Leib) resulting in an overall change in the subjective experience. The application of modern embodiment theories in life sciences has the potential to create a novel, fruitful and heuristic approach, which may help us unveil features of the “mind-body phenomenon” that have been hidden so far. In this paper, I will try to briefly outline a possible analytical framework on the grounds of classic - Husserlian and Merleau-Pontian - phenomenology and biomedical sciences.