Clinical Neuroscience



MAY 30, 2006

Clinical Neuroscience - 2006;59(05-06)

[In the second half of the 19th century anthropological researches started everywhere in the world. Cranioscopy formed an important part of the biological anthropology. József Lenhossék (1818-1888) worked also on this subject and on the basis of one of his researches in 1875 he became the founder of the anthropology in Hungary. On 76 skulls of several collections and on 265 heads together with his coworkers he performed 50 measurements on each skulls and heads and calculated the important ratios (skull-indexes). He determined the skull-indexes of the Hungarian people. These indexes are valid also today.]



Further articles in this publication

Clinical Neuroscience


BÓNÉ Beáta, JANSZKY József

[While 10% of healthy men had sexual dysfunctions, male epilepsy patients experience sexual problems in 40-70%. The cause of sexual dysfunction in epilepsy is multifactorial, but there are three main factors: the epilepsy itself, antiepileptic treatment and psychiatrical/psychic problems. Antiepileptics with hepatic enzyme induction potential (carbamazepine, phenytoin) enhance the metabolism of sexual steroids. Valproic acid as an enzyme inhibitor and drug with high protein binding affinity elevates the free serum levels of androgenes. Certain antiepileptic drugs may have negative cognitive side effects, some of them can induce psychiatric disorders. These drugs can facilitate male sexual dysfunctions through these psychic side effects. The metabolic and endocrine alterations caused by carbamazepin may return to normal level after replacement of carbamazepin with oxcarbazepine. After an oxcarbazepin-carbamazepin replacement, carbamazepin-induced impotency can be cured. According some new data lamotrigine can also help in sexual dysfunction. The therapy of sexual dysfunction in epilepsy depends on its cause. In cases of hormonal alterations, the fist step is a change of antiepileptic regimen. Instead of enzymeinductor antiepileptics and valproate, new antiepileptic drugs should be prescribed. At present, the most investigated antiepileptic drug is the oxcarbazepine with positive effect on antiepileptic-induced male sexual dysfunction, however, lamotrigine seems to be also beneficial. If the hormonal and sexual dysfunctions cannot be eliminated by drug changes, androgenic therapy or bromocriptin may be required. Testosteron may not only be beneficial on sexual functions, but can reduce also the seizure frequency. Independent of etiology, erectile dysfunctions can be successfully treated by sildenafil.]

Clinical Neuroscience


Clinical Neuroscience


GULYÁS Szilvia, NAGY Ferenc, SZIRMAI Imre

[A 36 year-old male patient developed sudden double vision and gait imbalance. Neurological examination revealed gaze paresis upward and on the left side downward (vertical “oneand- a-half”-syndrome), horizontal gaze nystagmus on the left bulbus directed to left. The MRI revealed bilateral thalamic and left midbrain ischemic lesions. The brainstem auditory and visual evoked responses were normally configured. Optokinetic nystagmus test found rightward, upward and downward hypometric saccades, convergence-retraction nystagmus - which was not visible at physical neurological examination - saccadic smooth pursuit eye movement and pseudoabducent palsy on both sides. The complex gaze disturbance was attributed to the lesions in the intralaminar nuclei of the thalamus and in the pretectal and rostromedial tegmentum of the mesencephalon. Infarcts may have been due to a variant artery: i.e. the thalamoperforant and the superior paramedian mesencephalic arteries originate with common branch from one of the communicant basilar artery. The authors discuss the mechanism of complex gaze palsy and call attention to the diagnostic value of optokinetic nystagmus examination.]

Clinical Neuroscience


Clinical Neuroscience

[Tünde Csépány-Zsolt Illés: Clinical neuroimmunology]


All articles in the issue

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Clinical Neuroscience

[The connection between the socioeconomic status and stroke in Budapest]


[The well-known gap bet­ween stroke mortality of Eastern and Western Euro­pean countries may reflect the effect of socioeconomic diffe­rences. Such a gap may be present between neighborhoods of different wealth within one city. We set forth to compare age distribution, incidence, case fatality, mortality, and risk factor profile of stroke patients of the poorest (District 8) and wealthiest (District 12) districts of Budapest. We synthesize the results of our former comparative epidemiological investigations focusing on the association of socioeconomic background and features of stroke in two districts of the capital city of Hungary. The “Budapest District 8–12 project” pointed out the younger age of stroke patients of the poorer district, and established that the prevalence of smoking, alcohol-consumption, and untreated hypertension is also higher in District 8. The “Six Years in Two Districts” project involving 4779 patients with a 10-year follow-up revealed higher incidence, case fatality and mortality of stroke in the less wealthy district. The younger patients of the poorer region show higher risk-factor prevalence, die younger and their fatality grows faster during long-term follow-up. The higher prevalence of risk factors and the higher fatality of the younger age groups in the socioeconomically deprived district reflect the higher vulnerability of the population in District 8. The missing link between poverty and stroke outcome seems to be lifestyle risk-factors and lack of adherence to primary preventive efforts. Public health campaigns on stroke prevention should focus on the young generation of socioeconomi­cally deprived neighborhoods. ]

Clinical Neuroscience

[The Comprehensive Aphasia Test in Hungarian]


[In this paper we present the Comprehensive Aphasia Test-Hungarian (CAT-H; Zakariás and Lukács, in preparation), an assessment tool newly adapted to Hungarian, currently under standardisation. The test is suitable for the assessment of an acquired language disorder, post-stroke aphasia. The aims of this paper are to present 1) the main characteristics of the test, its areas of application, and the process of the Hungarian adaptation and standardisation, 2) the first results from a sample of Hungarian people with aphasia and healthy controls. Ninety-nine people with aphasia, mostly with unilateral, left hemisphere stroke, and 19 neurologically intact control participants were administered the CAT-H. In addition, we developed a questionnaire assessing demographic and clinical information. The CAT-H consists of two parts, a Cognitive Screening Test and a Language Test. People with aphasia performed significantly worse than the control group in all language and almost all cognitive subtests of the CAT-H. Consistent with our expectations, the control group performed close to ceiling in all subtests, whereas people with aphasia exhibited great individual variability both in the language and the cognitive subtests. In addition, we found that age, time post-onset, and type of stroke were associated with cognitive and linguistic abilities measured by the CAT-H. Our results and our experiences clearly show that the CAT-H provides a comprehensive profile of a person’s impaired and intact language abilities and can be used to monitor language recovery as well as to screen for basic cognitive deficits in aphasia. We hope that the CAT-H will be a unique resource for rehabilitation professionals and aphasia researchers in aphasia assessment and diagnostics in Hungary. ]

Lege Artis Medicinae

[Thiazide- or thiazide-like diuretics should be used in the treatment of patients with hypertension? Particularities of the situation in Hungary]


[Diuretics have remained the cornerstone of the antihypertensive treatment since their widespreading in the 1960s. According to the 2018 ESC/ESH Guidelines for the management of arterial hypertension, in the absence of evidence from direct comparator trials and recognizing that many of the approved single-pill combinations are based on hydrochlorothiazide, this drug and thiazide-like indapamide can be considered suitable antihypertensive agents. In the 2018 Hungarian guidelines indapamide is named as the most efficacious diuretic in the treatment of patients with hypertension. The aim of the publication is redefining thiazide- and thiazide-like diuretic use in the treatment of hypertensive patients, with particular attention to presently available hydrochlorothia­zide and indapamide, and their combination drugs in Hungary.]

Clinical Neuroscience

Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease: A single center experience and systemic analysis of cases in Turkey

USLU Ilgen Ferda, ELIF Gökçal, GÜRSOY Esra Azize, KOLUKISA Mehmet, YILDIZ Babacan Gulsen

We aimed to analyze the clinical, laboratory and neuroimaging findings in patients with sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) in a single center as well as to review other published cases in Turkey. Between January 1st, 2014 and June 31st, 2017, all CJD cases were evaluated based on clinical findings, differential diagnosis, the previous misdiagnosis, electroencephalography (EEG), cerebrospinal fluid and cranial magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings in our center. All published cases in Turkey between 2005-2018 were also reviewed. In a total of 13 patients, progressive cognitive decline was the most common presenting symptom. Two patients had a diagnosis of Heidenhain variant, 1 patient had a diagnosis of Oppenheimer-Brownell variant. Seven patients (53.3%) had been misdiagnosed with depression, vascular dementia, normal pressure hydrocephalus or encephalitis. Eleven patients (87%) had typical MRI findings but only 5 of these were present at baseline. Asymmetrical high signal abnormalities on MRI were observed in 4 patients. Five patients (45.4%) had periodic spike wave complexes on EEG, all appeared during the follow-up. There were 74 published cases in Turkey bet­ween 2005 and 2018, with various clinical presentations. CJD has a variety of clinical features in our patient series as well as in cases reported in Turkey. Although progressive cognitive decline is the most common presenting symptom, unusual manifestations in early stages of the disease might cause misdiagnosis. Variant forms should be kept in mind in patients with isolated visual or cerebellar symptoms. MRI and EEG should be repeated during follow-up period if the clinical suspicion still exists.

Clinical Neuroscience

[Health status and costs of ambulatory patients with multiple sclerosis in Hungary]

PÉNTEK Márta, GULÁCSI László, RÓZSA Csilla, SIMÓ Magdolna, ILJICSOV Anna, KOMOLY Sámuel, BRODSZKY Valentin

[Background and purpose - Data on disease burden of multiple sclerosis from Eastern-Central Europe are very limited. Our aim was to explore the quality of life, resource utilisation and costs of ambulating patients with multiple sclerosis in Hungary. Methods - Cross-sectional questionnaire survey was performed in two outpatient neurology centres in 2009. Clinical history, health care utilisation in the past 12 months were surveyed, the Expanded Disability Status Scale and the EQ-5D questionnaires were applied. Cost calculation was conducted from the societal perspective. Results - Sixty-eight patients (female 70.6%) aged 38.0 (SD 9.1) with disease duration of 7.8 (SD 6.7) years were involved. Fifty-five (80.9%) had relapsing-remitting form and 52 (76.5%) were taking immunomodulatory drug. The average scores were: Expanded Disability Status Scale 1.9 (SD 1.7), EQ-5D 0.67 (SD 0.28). Mean total cost amounted to 10 902 Euros/patient/year (direct medical 67%, direct nonmedical 13%, indirect costs 20%). Drugs, disability pension and informal care were the highest cost items. Costs of mild (Expanded Disability Status Scale 0-3.5) and moderate (Expanded Disability Status Scale 4.0-6.5) disease were 9 218 and 17 634 Euros/patient/year respectively (p<0.01), that is lower than results from Western European countries. Conclusion - Our study provides current inputs for policy making and contributes to understanding variation of costof- illness of multiple sclerosis in Europe.]