Clinical Neuroscience

[Infection-surveillance experience at a neurological intensive care unit]


OCTOBER 05, 2013

Clinical Neuroscience - 2013;66(09-10)

[Infection-surveillance is an important part of the infection control system serving the protection of patients and healthcare workers as well. The continuous surveillance of health care associated infections is among the most important fields of patient safety and quality management. The aim of this study was to evaluate the frequency of the health care associated infections among patients at the neurointensive care unit. Moreover, we aimed to identify specific infectionforms and the most frequently occurring pathogens. We performed the study for a half-year according to the HELICSmethod proposed by the National Center of Epidemiology. In this setup we evaluated the infections and risk factors for infection (instrument-use, antibiotic therapy etc.) among the patients who spent at least 48 hours in the neurointensive care unit. During the six-month period, we observed 16 health care associated mono- and polymicrobial infections out of the 88 cases. Mainly Gram-positive pathogens were identified, but we found multidrug-resistant pathogens as well. Clinically diagnosed pneumonia was the most frequent among the infections. These infections were detected by a relatively low microbiological testing rate, which warns to increase sampling frequency to ensure more accurate data on infections. Infection control based on a comparative standardized infection dataset seems to be one of the most important preventive measures.]


  1. Semmelweis Egyetem, Orvosszakmai, Finanszírozási és Minôségbiztosítási Igazgatóság, Kórházhigiénés Osztály, Budapest
  2. Semmelweis Egyetem, Általános Orvostudományi Kar, Neurológiai Klinika, Budapest



Further articles in this publication

Clinical Neuroscience

[The impact of the vitamin D in neurological diseases and neurorehabilitation: from demencia to multiple sclerosis. Part I: The role of the vitamin D in the prevetion and treatment of multiple sclerosis]


[The world-wide incidence of vitamin D deficiency is high, independently of age. Multiple sclerosis is a chronic disorder, occuring in those who possess or are exposed to a combination of genetic and environmental risk factors. One of the environmental factors associated with the development is vitamin D. Vitamin D is an immunomodulatory agent, its role is verified in many of autoimmune diseases. Vitamin D inhibits IL-6, IL-17 and IL-23 secretions which are crucial in Th1 and Th17 differentiation and also decreases proinflammatorical cytokine production. Moreover it enhances the immunosuppressive IL-10 cytokine secretion and inhibits the T-reg cell development. These cytokines and cells are essential for the pathomechanism of multiple sclerosis. Data have shown, that the vitamin D levels above 100 nmol/l (40 ng/ml) is essential for the prevention of multiple sclerosis. Below this level the vitamin D supplementation is reasonable. In pregnancy, the vitamin D deficiency at the last two semester increases the risk for the multiple sclerosis of the infant. The optimal vitamin D level for multiple sclerosis patients is 100-150 nmol/l (40-60 ng/ml). There is no consensus for the role of vitamin D in multiple sclerosis yet, but until the achieving this, the diagnosis and the treatment of the vitamin D deficiency is crucial for scelrosis multiplex patients and in cases of elevated risk. Data shows, that in patient with multiple sclerosis the normal vitamin D level is suboptimal, however the exact role of vitamin D and doses must be clarified by interventional studies.]

Clinical Neuroscience

[Occurence and molecular pathology of low grade gliomas]


[Background - The WHO grade I. and II. low-grade gliomas represent nearly the 15% of all primary brain tumors. These tumours contain clinically, hisologically and molecularly distinct tumor types. According to their histologic characteristic, grade II glial tumours are the diffuse astrocytoma, oligodendroglioma and oligoastrocytoma subgroups; the ependymal tumors are not included in this study. Methods - In our publication, we analysed the histological diagnosed glioma cases between 2007 and 2011 at our institution. Results - Low-grade gliomas were diagnosed in 127 cases (62 male / 65 female), and the mean ages were 39 years (±20.3). More than half of the cancers were localizated in the frontal lobe, and the second most frequent area was the temporal lobe. Finally, we comlete our report with an overview of major molecular pathways in low-grade gliomas.]

Clinical Neuroscience

[Occurence and molecular pathology of high grade gliomas]


[Background - Glial tumours represent the most frequent type of primary brain cancers. Gliomas are characterized by heterogeneity that makes the diagnosis, histological classification and the choosing of correct therapy more difficult. Despite the advances in developing therapeutic strategies patients with malignant gliomas have a poor prognosis; therefore glial tumours represent one of the most important areas of cancer research. There are no detailed data on the epidemiology of gliomas in Hungary. Methods - In the first section of our publication, we analysed the histological diagnosed cases between 2007 and 2011 at the Institute of Pathology, University of Debrecen Medical and Health Science Centre. We analyzed the incidence of 214 high-grade gliomas by tumor grades, gender, age, and the anatomical localization. Results - The majority of cases were glioblastoma (182 cases), and the remaining 32 cases were anaplastic gliomas. The mean age of patients was 57 years (±16.4), and the male:female ratio was 1.1:1. The most frequent area of tumors was the frontal lobe followed by the temporal, parietal and occipital lobe. We include new findings published recently about glioma patogenesis, molecular pathways, mutant genes and chromosomal regions. We explain briefly the role of selected important genes in glioma genesis and give an update on knowledge provided by modern molecular methods, which could beneficially influence future therapy and the diagnosis of gliomas.]

Clinical Neuroscience



Clinical Neuroscience

[Split laminotomy and complementary spacer insertion for opening and enlargement of the thoracic spinal canal at infiltrative intramedullary tumor removal]


[Objective - The author main objective was to improve the previously developed technique of split laminotomy and moderate enlargement of the spinal canal with preservation of the majority of posterior structures, and to avoid the complications of the classic autologous bone grafting procedure. Methods - A multilevel spinous process splitting and distracting laminotomy technique with complementary spacer insertion between the laminar parts was developed. We used Poly-Ether-Ether-Ketone (PEEK) cages. This improved method was used in five patients to remove malignant intramedullary tumors at the thoracic level. Results - Adequate surgery of the tumors located intramedullary, and permanent decompression of the spinal canal was achieved in all patients using our new modified procedure. The results have been postoperatively confirmed with MRI and CT. The affected spine was the thoracic in all cases. The numbers of split laminae were three to five. Histological results were as follows: four intramedullary astrocytomas, one ependymoma. The ependymoma was completely, while the astrocytomas were only subtotally removed. In all cases heterologous grafts were inserted between the sides of the distracted laminas, to achieve the enlargement of the spinal canal. The mean duration of the whole surgical procedure was 118 minutes (range 91 to 145 minutes). The average follow-up was 11.2 months, with the range from five to 16 months. Upon postoperative neurological follow-up, no complications were revealed related to the newly developed procedure. The postoperative followup CT scans demonstrated bony healing, with a cage between the osteotomized faces. No compression or dislocation of the spacer was seen. Instability was not detected in any of the patients by flexion or extension lateral radiographs. Conclusion - This modification of the split laminotomy and heterologous grafting method fulfills the requirements of other laminotomy techniques. The split laminotomy is suitable for removing intramedullary tumors, and the posterior stabilizing structures of the spine, as the vertebral laminae and the longitudinal musculature are completely prevented. Due to use of allograft the complications of the classic hip bone grafting procedures are avoided. The spacers, inserted between the osteotomized faces, provided permanent decompression of the spinal canal, and bony healing - throughout the spacer - of the splitted vertebral laminae, without iliac graft complications.]

All articles in the issue

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Journal of Nursing Theory and Practice

[The importance of the hand hygiene compliance development in the light of prevention of nosocomial infections]

SAJTI Anikó, CSERNUS Mariann

[Good hand hygiene is the most effective means of preventing healthcare-associated infections, as contaminated hands are the greatest risk of spreading infections. It is critical that the infection control professionals emphasise the importance of good hand hygiene practices and help the health care professionals on the five steps of hand hygiene. The author presents in the case study that the numbers of positive urinary microbiological samples were decreased with systematic hand hygiene examination with direct methods and continuous feedback of experiences among the staff of the intensive care unit. For further development four sensory, alcoholic hand scrubbers with spraying automats were fitted by the management of the unit. Data obtained directly from observation further analysis is our goal a comprehensive study for the profession, which can serve as a positive example later to launch compliance development programs in other hospitals. ]

Lege Artis Medicinae


KAHÁN Zsuzsanna

[Breast cancer is the most common malignancy in women in developed countries. The development of most breast cancers is related to various hormonal effects, while 10% is associated with inherited gene mutations. Most of the primary prevention methods aim at decreasing the effects of hormones, but education on proper lifestyle is also an important risk-lowering method. The primary treatment of early breast cancer is usually breast-conserving surgery, either with the targeted removal of regional lymph nodes (by sentinel lymph node labelling) or with axillary block-dissection. The aim of postoperative radiotherapy is the eradication of the tumour cells left behind. Beside the locoregional tumour control this also plays a role in the prevention of recurrence or a secondary systemic dissemination. Adjuvant systemic treatments are used for the eradication of disseminated microscopic tumour foci. The use of modern adjuvant treatments may reduce death from the disease by up to 50%. The risks of relapse or death may be estimated based on established prognostic factors. While in low-risk patients it is not worth starting medical treatment, especially in view of the side effects, while in other cases chemo- or hormonal therapy may save the patient's life. The choice of the medical treatment should also depend on the patient's general health, the concomittant diseases and her preferences. The collaboration of the various specialists involved in the care of breast cancer patients can best take place at specialised breast centres that are equipped with the necessary technical basis, knowledge and professional experience.]

Clinical Neuroscience

[Neurological and psychiatrical prospects of apathy]


[During his long practice as head physician of a neurological and psychiatrical department with over 100 beds performed the examination and department of more than a hundred thousand patients. Based on the acquired experience and the data of the most recent literature he treats every aspect of the apathy syndrome. He emphasizes the multidisciplinary approach during both establishing the causes and the examination and treatment of patients. In order to clarify the diagnosis consultations with other disciplines must be used as well as the the knowledge provided by the now essential CT, MRI, PET, SPECT. The author discusses the international therapeutical possibilities and practice after the recently alredy possible exact diagnosis.]

Clinical Neuroscience

[The future in danger: a survey of the changes in the number of neurologists and a prognosis for 2010 in Hungary]

BERECZKI Dániel, CSIBA László, KOMOLY Sámuel, VÉCSEI László

[Lack of neurologists has become an obvious problem recently in Hungary, not only in small hospitals, but in major health care centers and also in university hospitals. With the current survey we set forth to estimate the number of board certified neurologists, and to evaluate the foreseeable changes in the next decade. In the beginning of 2010 there were 1310 physicians in Hungary with an official license to practice neurology. During 2009 neurological performance at least once during the year was claimed to the National Health Insurance Fund by 948 board certified neurologists. The number of those neurologists who are routinely involved in neurological patient care was estimated to be around 750. The lack of the young generation is characteristic for the age distribution of neurologists. In nine out of the 19 counties of Hungary the number of neurologists below the age of 35 is one or nil. In the ten-year period of 2000-2009 the annual mean number of new board certifications in neurology was 22. This number is much lower than that needed to replace those who get employed abroad and who leave the system for other reasons. The number of neurologists in the age range of 40-60 years will drop to 2/3 of the current number by 2020 even if emigration of neurologists will completely halt. If emigration will continue at the current rate and the number of those in neurological training will not increase considerably, then by 2020 only about 300 neurologists will have to cover neurological services throughout Hungary. As this number is insufficient for the task, and the tendency is clearly foreseeable, the health care government should urgently react to this situation to ensure an acceptable level of neurological services in the near future for the population of Hungary.]

Clinical Neuroscience

[Mentalizing deficit in neurological disorders: a review article]

HEROLD Róbert, VARGA Eszter, MIKE Andrea, TÉNYI Tamás, SIMON Mária, HAJNAL András, FEKETE Sándor, ILLÉS Zsolt

[Introduction – Mentalization is the ability to attribute mental states (intentions, desires, thoughts, emotions) to others, and hence to predict their behaviour. This ability fundamentally determines our participation in social relationships and adaptation to society. A significant proportion of the disorders of the central nervous system (CNS) affects those brain structures and neurotransmitter systems that play a role in the mentalizing processes. Accordingly, a number of CNS disorders may be associated with mentalizing deficits, which may affect the outcome of these diseases. Here, we review recent research on mentalizing abilities in neurological diseases. Methods – An internet database search was performed to identify publications on the subject. Results – Sixty-two publications in English corresponded to the search criteria. These publications reported impaired mentalization in several neurological disorders (e.g. epilepsy, Parkinson’s disease, multiple sclerosis, dementias, traumatic brain injury). Discussion – The results indicate that a number of neurological disorders associate with mentalizing deficit. This deficit is often present in the early stages of the diseases and has a prognostic value, which in turn emphasizes the importance of the early detection and adequate rehabilitation.]