Clinical Neuroscience

[Immune responses and neuroimmune modulation in the pathogenesis of acute ischemic stroke and poststroke infections]

PAPP Viktória, MOLNÁR Tihamér, BÁNÁTI Miklós, ILLÉS Zsolt

JULY 20, 2010

Clinical Neuroscience - 2010;63(07-08)

[Acute-onset cerebrovascular diseases are connected to a number of immunological changes. Here, we summarize immune responses participating in the evolution of atherosclerotic plaques and poststroke local immune responses in the injured CNS as well as in the systemic circulation. Ischemic injury of the CNS alters the balanced neuroimmune modulation resulting in CIDS, the central nervous system injury-induced immune deficiency syndrome. Due to the immunodepression and reduced pro-inflammatory immune responses, the susceptibility for infection is increased; indeed, poststroke infection plays a major role in stroke-related mortality. On the other hand, CIDS may protect against damaging autoimmune responses elicited by exposed CNS antigens. Investigation of immune responses related to ischemic stroke may result in novel therapies indicated by an increasing number of experimental and clinical trials altering poststroke immune responses and preventing infections.]



Further articles in this publication

Clinical Neuroscience

[Neurological and psychiatrical prospects of apathy]


[During his long practice as head physician of a neurological and psychiatrical department with over 100 beds performed the examination and department of more than a hundred thousand patients. Based on the acquired experience and the data of the most recent literature he treats every aspect of the apathy syndrome. He emphasizes the multidisciplinary approach during both establishing the causes and the examination and treatment of patients. In order to clarify the diagnosis consultations with other disciplines must be used as well as the the knowledge provided by the now essential CT, MRI, PET, SPECT. The author discusses the international therapeutical possibilities and practice after the recently alredy possible exact diagnosis.]

Clinical Neuroscience

[Prophylactic migraine treatment with topiramate]

NAGY Ferenc

[Migraine is a very common disorder characterized by the combination of typical headache with associated autonomic symptoms and ranked by the WHO as number 19 among all diseases worldwide causing disability. Considerable progresses have been made in recent years to understand the pathophysiology of migraine, which has led to improved treatment options for the acute migraine attack as well as migraine prophylaxis. When headaches are frequent or particularly severe, prophylactic therapy should be considered, however preventive treatment is often insufficient to decrease migraine frequency substantially or is not well tolerated. The present paper summaries the possible drug treatment options which have the A level of evidence for effective preventive therapy of migraine. Summarises the evidences for the prophylactic migraine treatment, specially the role of the newly approved topiramate in the prophylaxis.]

Clinical Neuroscience

[The effect of Stalevo-dosing on quality of life of parkinsonian patients with wearing-off]

BOKOR Magdolna, SZENTESI Annamária

[In Stalevo tablets, used in the therapy of patients with Parkinson’s disease, levodopa is combined with decarboxylase inhibitors and COMT inhibitors to provide a more steady plasma concentration of levodopa. Previously several study has shown, that the better pharmacokinetic profile decreases the fluctuation of motor and non-motor symptoms. Better control of symptoms improves quality of life. Ideal blood levels of levodopa however can only be achieved by multiple daily dosing. This may be uncomfortable, may decrease compliance, thereby influence quality of life. To evaluate this a observational follow-up study was undertaken in Hungary in 2007, among patients, who were given Stalevo - independently of this study - because of signs of decrease in the duration of drug effect (wearing off). Patients got Stalevo in three, four or five daily divided dosages, the results were assesed after three months. The study included 223 patients (ITT population), of whom 208 (PP population) responded regarding quality of life on both visits. Statistical analysis of the results showed that treatment significantly decreased symptoms of wearing off (wearing off card with 19 items) and improved quality of life (EQ-5D and VAS quality of life scale) regardless of the frequency of dosing.]

Clinical Neuroscience

[The future in danger: a survey of the changes in the number of neurologists and a prognosis for 2010 in Hungary]

BERECZKI Dániel, CSIBA László, KOMOLY Sámuel, VÉCSEI László

[Lack of neurologists has become an obvious problem recently in Hungary, not only in small hospitals, but in major health care centers and also in university hospitals. With the current survey we set forth to estimate the number of board certified neurologists, and to evaluate the foreseeable changes in the next decade. In the beginning of 2010 there were 1310 physicians in Hungary with an official license to practice neurology. During 2009 neurological performance at least once during the year was claimed to the National Health Insurance Fund by 948 board certified neurologists. The number of those neurologists who are routinely involved in neurological patient care was estimated to be around 750. The lack of the young generation is characteristic for the age distribution of neurologists. In nine out of the 19 counties of Hungary the number of neurologists below the age of 35 is one or nil. In the ten-year period of 2000-2009 the annual mean number of new board certifications in neurology was 22. This number is much lower than that needed to replace those who get employed abroad and who leave the system for other reasons. The number of neurologists in the age range of 40-60 years will drop to 2/3 of the current number by 2020 even if emigration of neurologists will completely halt. If emigration will continue at the current rate and the number of those in neurological training will not increase considerably, then by 2020 only about 300 neurologists will have to cover neurological services throughout Hungary. As this number is insufficient for the task, and the tendency is clearly foreseeable, the health care government should urgently react to this situation to ensure an acceptable level of neurological services in the near future for the population of Hungary.]

Clinical Neuroscience

[New surgical technique for atlanto-axial instability: C1-2 dorsal fixation with the screw-rod system]


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Clinical Neuroscience

[The connection between the socioeconomic status and stroke in Budapest]


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Clinical Neuroscience

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Clinical Neuroscience

The applications of transcranial Doppler in ischemic stroke


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Clinical Neuroscience

Hyperhomocysteinemia in female migraineurs of childbearing ages


Background and purpose - Migraine is a risk factor for ischemic stroke in women of childbearing ages. Previous researches revealed a higher prevalence of hyperhomocysteinemia in migraineurs. Possible differences on the frequencies of hyperhomocysteinemia between migraine with aura and migraine without aura could contribute the established variances in stroke risk between these migraine types. Therefore, we aimed to search if the frequency of hyperhomocysteinemia was different between these subtypes of migraine or not. Methods - We analyzed the findings of serum homocysteine levels in female migraineurs of 16-49 years old who admitted to our outpatient clinic. Results - Homocysteine level was elevated in 13.3% of study population. There were not any significant differences on median serum homocysteine levels between migraine with aura (8.0 mikromol/L) and without aura (8.5 mikromol/L). (p=0.426) The frequencies of hyperhomocysteinemia were also similar (9.1% versus 16.7%, respectively; p=0.373). Correlation analyses did not reveal any linear correlation between ages and homocysteine levels either in group of migraine with aura or in group of migraine without aura (p=0.417 and p=0.647, respectively). Similarly, any linear correlation between disease ages and homocysteine levels either in group of migraine with aura or in group of migraine without aura was not detected (p=0.359 and p=0.849, respectively). Conclusion - The median serum homocysteine levels and the frequencies of hyperhomocysteinemia are similar between migraine with aura and without aura in women of childbearing ages. Therefore, the variances on stroke risk ratios between these types of migraine are probably not originated from the differences of serum homocysteine status.

Hypertension and nephrology

[Evaluation of arterial stiffness in children. Guidelines for the practice]

CSEPREKÁL Orsolya, KIS Éva, SZABÓ J. Attila, REUSZ György

[Assessment of early atherosclerosis and decreased arterial elasticity to recognise the cardiovascular dysfunction in high-risk patients has gained importance in the past decade. Since 1990, more than 630 papers have been published in the adult and pediatric literature. Methods of early risk assessment in adults are well determined in international recommendations. The aim of the present work is to review the suggestions of the American Heart Association helping us to find the most appropriate method for the non invasive methods of cardiovascular assessment of young adults and children. Furthermore, multicentric studies should be conducted to create a Framingham like score system for pediatric patients, to render cardiovascular risk assessment much easier for the every day routine.]