Clinical Neuroscience

[Hungarian Society of Neuroradiology]

MARCH 20, 1993

Clinical Neuroscience - 1993;46(03-04)

[Hungarian Society of Neuroradiology 1993 draft programme.]



Further articles in this publication

Clinical Neuroscience

[Post-stroke depression]

ASZALÓS Zsuzsa, PATAKY Ilona, SIMON Andrea, NAGY Zoltán

[The pathogenesis of depression following cerebrovascular accident (post-stroke depression) is poorly understood. Thirty seven (28%) out of 134 patients from the „Budapest Stroke Data Bank" were found to be depressed. Thirty two patients (86%) in this group were affected by depression within three months or the stroke. Diagnosis of depression was bades on CES-D, Ham-D and Zung scales, and a word fluency test was performed with 11 depressed and 11 non-depressed patients. Comparing the frequency of post-stroke depression in groups with ischemic damage of the carotid versus the vertebrobasilar system, as well as the left versus right middle cerebral artery, no significant differences were found. Depression reduced the activities of daily living (score: 7.8) compared to the activities of non-depressed patients (score: 3.8) at the same score of stroke – severity (4.7 versus 4.1). These observations suggest that post-stroke depression influences the rehabilitation of stroke patients, therefore the diagnosis and treatment of post-stroke depression may increase the efficacy of stroke rehabilitation.]

Clinical Neuroscience

[The role of brainstem auditory evoked potentials in the diagnosis of vertebrobasilar insufficiency]


[The diagnostic usefulness of brainstem auditory evoked potentials was compared with other diagnostic possibilities. Brainstem auditory evoked potential was examined in patients with vertebrobasilar insufficiency. Based on the duration of clinical symptoms, patients were divided into three groups: 85 patients with transient ischaemic attack (TIA), 31 patients with prolonged ischaemic symptoms, and 35 patients with chronic symptoms were examined. The latency and interpeak latency of the auditory evoked potentials increased in 49,3 per cent. A subgroup within the TIA group was specially tested. The patients belonging to this group were admitted to the clinic soon after the onset of TIA. Acoustic evoked potentials showed increased latencies and interpeak latencies in 45,8 per cent of this group. The increasing latencies of the waves I. and III. and the interpeak latancies of I-II. and I-V. waves were the most frequent differences. Otoneurology demonstrated more frequent functional disturbances in brainstem than in acoustic evoked potentials in the second and third group. Computerized tomography is a really helpful only in examining chronic cases, while the CT reports 3,6 per cent hypodensities in the first group and 17,3 per cent in the third group. Brainstem auditory evoked potential testing is the most sensitive diagnostic method in the diagnosis of transient ischaemic attack.]

Clinical Neuroscience

[Spontaneous intracerebral haematomas in children]


[The authors report two cases of spontaneous intracerebral haematomas in children. Both children presented with serious symptoms of acute intracerebral haemorrhage. Investigations do not reveal the cause of the haemorrhage in either of the cases and angiography detected no arteriovenous malformation. The term ,,occult” is reserved for these cases, as spontaneous intracerebral haematomas do not result in space-occupying process or CSF passage blockage and may be treated medically.]

Clinical Neuroscience

[The effect of cerebrospinal fluid drainage on middle cerebral artery blood flow velocity in conditions with raised intracarnial pressure]


[Middle cerebral artery (MCA) blood flow velocity and intracranial pressure (ICP) were recorded in 42 patients suffering from raised ICP. A major (ICP25 mmHg) or moderate (251CP15 mmHg) degree of intracranial hypertension was reduced by means of either continuous or intermittent CSF drainage. Measurements of MCA blood flow velocity were carried out with transcranial Doppler sonography (TCD). Three types of reactions were observed with regard to cerebral blood flow velocity (CBFV) changes in response to CSF drainage. Patients in Group 1 demonstrated pressure passive CBFV changes throughout the observed cerebral perfusion pressure (PP) range. In Group 2, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) drainage brought about a transitory increase in CBFV for a few minutes. In Group 3, the reduction of ICP to the normal level did not influence CBFV at all. The pulsatility index (PI) of the cerebrovascular reserve capacity (CVR), which was highest in Group 1, changed in contrast with the CBFV changes in Groups 1 and 2. The pressure-passive velocity pattern (in Group 1) suggests that the blood vessels were at nearly maximum dilatation and were perhaps failing to constrict properly in response to increased PP. As recovery proceeded (Group 2), the mechanism became effective, thereby reestablishing autoregulation. Whereas clinical signs and computed tomography reveal only the trend of the ICP, TCD provides the possibility of a semi-quantitative evaluation of ICP changes and seems especially promising in the rapid assessment of the efficacy of treatment aimed at ICP reduction.]

Clinical Neuroscience

[Measurements of regional cerebral blood flow and blood flow velocity in experimental intracarnial hypertension: infusion via the cisterna magna in rabbits]

BARZÓ Pál, DÓCZI Tamás, CSETE Klára, BUZA Zoltán, BODOSI Mihály

[The cerebral blood flow velocity (CBFV), as measured by transcranial Doppler sonography (TCD) via the transorbital route in the intracranial segment of internal carotid artery (ICA), and the regional cerebral blood (volume) flow (rCBF) in the corresponding cortical areas, as measured by the hydrogen clearance technique, were determined in 8 New Zealand White rabbits undergoing cisterna magna infusion for elevation of the intracranial pressure (ICP). In the lower range of autoregulation, i. e. at perfusion pressures (PP) between 80 and 40 mm of mercury and even below this, the changes in (CBFV) and CBF showed a strong correlation (0,86) under conditions with standard PCO2 (PaCO2)=35+2 mm of mercury). Autoregulation was exhausted at 40 mm of mercury and the cerebrovascular resistance (CVR) was minimal. Below this PP, the CBF and CBV dropped sharply, whereas CVR, gradually increased, indicating that, despite the maximally dilated resistance vessels, the intracranial hypertension causes the vascular resistance to increase, possibly via blocking of the venous outflow. Our results confirmed that non-invasive and easily (even at the bedside) applicable measurements of CBFV changes could substitute the cumbersome and expensive isotope measurements of CBF in intracranial hypertension.]

All articles in the issue

Related contents

Lege Artis Medicinae

[LAM 30: 1990–2020. Facing the mirror: Three decades of LAM, the Hungarian medicine and health care system]


Clinical Neuroscience

[The Comprehensive Aphasia Test in Hungarian]


[In this paper we present the Comprehensive Aphasia Test-Hungarian (CAT-H; Zakariás and Lukács, in preparation), an assessment tool newly adapted to Hungarian, currently under standardisation. The test is suitable for the assessment of an acquired language disorder, post-stroke aphasia. The aims of this paper are to present 1) the main characteristics of the test, its areas of application, and the process of the Hungarian adaptation and standardisation, 2) the first results from a sample of Hungarian people with aphasia and healthy controls. Ninety-nine people with aphasia, mostly with unilateral, left hemisphere stroke, and 19 neurologically intact control participants were administered the CAT-H. In addition, we developed a questionnaire assessing demographic and clinical information. The CAT-H consists of two parts, a Cognitive Screening Test and a Language Test. People with aphasia performed significantly worse than the control group in all language and almost all cognitive subtests of the CAT-H. Consistent with our expectations, the control group performed close to ceiling in all subtests, whereas people with aphasia exhibited great individual variability both in the language and the cognitive subtests. In addition, we found that age, time post-onset, and type of stroke were associated with cognitive and linguistic abilities measured by the CAT-H. Our results and our experiences clearly show that the CAT-H provides a comprehensive profile of a person’s impaired and intact language abilities and can be used to monitor language recovery as well as to screen for basic cognitive deficits in aphasia. We hope that the CAT-H will be a unique resource for rehabilitation professionals and aphasia researchers in aphasia assessment and diagnostics in Hungary. ]

Lege Artis Medicinae

[A short chronicle of three decades ]


[Hungarian professional periodicals started quite late in European context. Their publish­ing, editing and editorial philosophy were equally influenced by specific historical and political situations. Certain breaking points of history resulted in termina­tion of professional journals (War of In­de­pendence 1848-1849, First and Se­cond World Wars), however there were pe­riods, which instigated the progress of sciences and founding of new scientific journals. Both trends were apparent in years after the fall of former Hungarian regime in 1990. The structure of book and journal publishing has changed substantially, some publishers fell “victim” others started successfully as well. The latters include the then-established publishing house Literatura Medica and its own scientific journal, Lege Artis Me­di­cinae (according to its subtitle: New Hun­garian Medical Herald) issued first in 1990. Its appearance enhanced significantly the medical press market. Its scientific publications compete with articles of the well-established domestic medical journals however its philosophy set brand-new trends on the market. Concerning the medical community, it takes on its problems and provides a forum for them. These problems are emerging questions in health care, economy and prevention, in close interrelation with system of public health institutions, infrastructure and situation of those providing individual health services. In all of them, Lege Artis Medicinae follows consequently the ideas of traditional social medicine.]

Lege Artis Medicinae

[History of vaccine production in Hungary ]


[This study presents the complete history of the Hungarian vaccine production, partly in association with the process of fighting vaccine-preventable infectious diseases, and underlines the fact that every government actively contributed to the age-adjusted mandatory vaccination schedule of the past 140 years. It demonstrates the various achievements from the smallpox lymph production through the launch of diphtheria serum production at Phylaxia and the establishment of the National Public Health Institute (OKI) with its vaccine production and the later institutional transformation of OKI into Humán as economic corporation to its closure. Among all OKI’s vaccine production activities, this study focuses on the production of influenza vaccines, due to its international importance in the 1960s and 1970s. The vaccine production against diphtheria tetanus and pertussis stands out from Humán’s activities, and the tetanus component of this vaccine is still used in the products of a multinational vaccine manufacturer. ]

Lege Artis Medicinae

[Diagnosis and treatment of microvascular coronary heart disease. Specialities of conditions in Hungary]


[Invasive investigations show that in two-thirds of patients the myocardial ischaemia persists without obstructive coronary disease and any other heart conditions (INOCA). The underlying cause may be microvascular dysfunction (CMD) with consecutive microvascular coronary disease (MVD) and microvascular or epicardial vasospastic angina (MVA). The modern practice of clinical cardiology while using the developed non-invasive cardiac imaging permits exact measuring of the coronary flow with its characteristic indices. All of these improve the diagnosing of CMD-induced myocardial ischemia and provide opportunity to determine primary MVD cases. Since the recognition and treatment of MVD is significantly underrep­resented in the Hungarian medical care, the primary stable microvascular angina (MVA) is described in detail below with its modern invasive and non-invasive differential diagnosis and treatment, concerning especially its frequency provoked by high blood pressure and female coronary heart diseases. There are highlighted all recommended diagnostic procedures available under domestic conditions.]